جستجوی عبارت review of literature and methods



depending on whether you are writing a paper, a proposal or a thesis, the structure of your work might differ. in this post we are going to review these sturctures briefly.

structure of a paper:

- abstract: which includes an overview of your work, your hypothesis and results

- intoduction: this is where you set the scene and promblematize the issue and explain its importance

- literature review: this is a critical review of what is known and what the problems are

- methods: this section includes an explanation of your approach, details and demog hics such as the number of participants and so on

- results: description of what happened, statistical methods, tables, ... -the tables and g hs must be consistant with apa

- discussion: what the result means and why this is important. you need to answer two questions here, why so and so what. this is where you get creative and analytical

- conclusion: sum up the entire study, say the final message, review the previous sections and give suggestions for further study

structure of a thesis:

- chapter 1: introduction

- chapter 2: review of literature

- chapter 3: methods

- chapter 4: results

- chapter 5: discussions & conclusion

structure of a proposal:

- abstract

- introduction

- review of literature

_ methods


in the name of the most merciful

our 4th session was all about the structure of academic writings like papers, proposal and theses.

we start with paper structure:

1-abstract: it should be short and give a general overview of your work including hypothesis, aim, results …

2- introduction: author should set the scene and explain the importance.

3- review of literature: what is known about the topic (review of other’s work on this topic)

it is better to have a critical view towards previous works

4-methods: it is the plan of your work, that is your procedure which has been employed in the process of your study ( the procedure of testing your hypothesis and arriving at a conclusion)

5-results: explanation of “what happened” at the end of your study.

6-discussion: as long as you have to justify your work and study for your readers regarding the aim and importance, this part is in need of much creativity. in short, you should answer to 2 important questions: 1- why so 2- so what

7- conclusion: you should sum up all your study and specifically your findings and their implication in this section. (your final message to your addressees).

now let’s see how should be the structure of a thesis

before going through thesis and proposal structure we should know that the issues that are discussed for any section of thesis and proposal are the same as their counterparts in paper structure.

in thesis structure we include our sections in different chapters, so every section is presented in the form of a distinctive chapter:

chapter 1- introduction

chapter 2- literature review

chapter 3- methods

chapter 4- results

chapter 5- discussion and conclusion

* note that we can mix results and discussion in chapter 4, so chapter 5 would be exclusively conclusion

here is the last structure, which is the proposal structure:

1-abstract

2- introduction

3- review of literature

4-methods

as i explained earlier each of these sections should discuss the same issues which were explained in paper structure.


a literature review is a way for you to learn what others think and have research related to your topic.you will complete the following steps:

  • find research articles,books, theses.
  • read and take notes.
  • cite your sources.
  • write a literature review.

a literature review is:
an examination on what has already been written about your topic.
a collection of published research about your topic by recognized scholars and researchers.
a way for you to examine what has already been done in regard to your research question or problem.
a summary and synthesis of research driven by a guiding concept. it is not just a list of research sources.
provides a background for your problem and a rationale for your research.
a literature review is not a research paper.

why do we do a literature review?

to get guidance on a topic.
to establish a solid background on the topic
to see what areas of research exist.
to investigate researchable hypotheses.
to collect authoritative data on the topic.
to find new avenues for research direction.

to show the gap in the field.


in the name of allah

in writing review of literature of our topic we should mention three points of previous studies which follow as:

  • major findings obtained by previous authors alongside their name and year of study ( also, some details on the methodology used in each study is worth mentioning).
  • point of views and controversies about the issue
  • a critical evaluation of each study or an all-including criticism at the end of the review section.

in, sum review of literature must embrace this information from previous works of study:

  • research questions
  • methods
  • analysis of the data
  • findings
  • our own criticism and interpretation

we can arrange these works based on some criteria like:

  • various research questions
  • topics and sub-topics that are central to the study
  • specific variables in the study
  • time (chronologically; from old to new ones)
  • different points of view
  • a combination of all above-mentioned factors

now let’s speak about the process of writing method or methodology of our own study.

first of all we may come to both of these terms when we want to write the title of this part. in general methodology refers to general and overall design while methods connotes an in-detail and step by step explanation of our procedure used in data collection and analysis.

this section should include:

  • participants: people who participated in your study (they should be called “participants,” not “subjects”). give as much information about the populations’: age range, gender mix, education
  • data collection instruments: this section describes the tests or instruments used to collect data. do you plan to use a standardized instrument or design your own? how does this instrument affect issues of reliability and validity (discuss)? discuss instrument biases. identify independent & dependent variables. discuss how this instrument will be scored
  • data collection procedure: this section describes in great detail the data-collection procedures. describe how participants were recruited, whether they participated alone or in groups, how informed consent or ent was obtained, what they were asked to do, how they were compen ed for their participation, etc. you should describe the procedure in a way that another researcher could conduct the same study (i.e., replicate it) just by reading about the procedure.
  • data analysis: what statistics do you plan to collect: descriptive/univariate statistics (frequency, central tendency, etc.) inferential statistics (pearson’s r, anova, etc.) bivariate, multivariate statistics, and how do you plan to do your analysis?

following these steps we will have an organized and standard review of literature and method section.


you know how i said in my last post that i’m sane now? well, i lied! i’m insane! right after that post watched a video about research at our uni and i go inspired and i did a crazy level of literature review and emailed my supervisor about! he liked it! we talked two hours about it but we’re still in murk! there are some really exciting opportunities out there but to make them happen i should keep doing crazy amounts of literature review! i don’t have to do it but it my choice and you know me! it’s just crazy! my supervisor is so dear and he just wants me not to worry and keep calm! ah! it’s just so crazy! but i think it should be crazy? what is life if not but a dream of a happy ending!

by the way i went to a bar last weekend and drank my first real drink!crazyyyy!


seyed naser lotfi fatemi - phd student in nursing

because of complementary and alternative medicine have a holistic view to health, and encomp all mental and physical and social aspects of man. mixed methods method will be one of the most useful methods for these studies.

the essential goal of mixed methods research is to tackle a given research question from any relevant angle, making use where appropriate of previous research and/or more than one type of investigative. .perspective

mixed methods research is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. the quantitative and qualitative paradigms are combined at many methodological steps in the design such as the purpose statement, literature review and research questions. this approach enjoys the a ntages of both the quantitative and qualitative paradigms but adds considerable complexity to the design. inductive and deductive reasoning are required in the same study. a sophisticated knowledge of both paradigms is required by the researcher to link the diverse methods together appropriately in the mixed method approach whether you are designing a mixed methods research project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative research methods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. in addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated.

mixed methods research is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking a ntage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. this ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as the utic m age are being studied. complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient’s body. additionally, the patient’s experience of the treatment may be an important outcome.

keywords: mixed methods , research design , experimental designs , methodology , complementary and alternative medicine


تعیین طبقه بندی journal of economic literature)jel) از سایت اینترنتی زیر قابل است اج است:

http://uniwersytetradom.pl/redirect.php?action=setcategory&id=783&subid=788

ویا از سایت:

https://www.aeaweb.org/jel/guide/jel.php

درباره مجله ادبیات اقتصادی jel:

the journal of economic literature (jel), first published in 1969, is designed to help economists keep abreast of the vast flow of literature. jel issues contain commissioned, peer-reviewed survey and review articles, book reviews, an annotated bibliog hy of new books cl ified by subject matter, and an annual index of dissertations in north american universities.

address to:

journal of economic literature
american economic ociation publications
2403 sidney st. #260
pittsburgh, pa 15203
412-432-2300 phone
412-431-3014 fax


نویسنده: علیرضا پناهیان
ناشر: فرهنگ گستر
کتاب حاضر مجموعه س انی های حجه ال پناهیان پیرامون ماه مبارک رمضان میباشد.
این کتاب در سال 1388 توسط انتشارات فرهنگ منتشر شده است موضوع این کتاب رمضان و روزه
میباشد.


در قسمتی از مباحث کتاب آمده است:این رسول خداست که ندا میدهد:آی مردم شهر خدا با
(دستانی پر از)برکت و رحمت و مغفرت به شما رو کرده است...

شهر ما هم در ظرف مکان جای ندارد.خداوند مهربان در عالم شهری دارد،که در ظرف زمان قرار یافته
است.شهر خداکه در زمانی معلوم و با گنجایشی نامحدود،همه ساله محل اقامت مهمانان خدای
بزرگ می شود،همان خانه ملکوتی خداست و ضیافت خانه ی ملک پادشاهی پروردگار رحمان است،
که با عظمت بی نظیری،مانند قلعه ای بت برج وبا روهای بلند بر روی تپه ای از باغستان بهشت بنا
شده است،شهری که در آن این بار ملائکه به در نان خانه ی خدا طواف می کند،و برای پذیرایی
از مهمانان خدا محرم می شود...


نویسنده: علیرضا پناهیان
ناشر: فرهنگ گستر
کتاب حاضر مجموعه س انی های حجه ال پناهیان پیرامون ماه مبارک رمضان میباشد.
این کتاب در سال 1388 توسط انتشارات فرهنگ منتشر شده است موضوع این کتاب رمضان و روزه
میباشد.


در قسمتی از مباحث کتاب آمده است:این رسول خداست که ندا میدهد:آی مردم شهر خدا با
(دستانی پر از)برکت و رحمت و مغفرت به شما رو کرده است...

شهر ما هم در ظرف مکان جای ندارد.خداوند مهربان در عالم شهری دارد،که در ظرف زمان قرار یافته
است.شهر خداکه در زمانی معلوم و با گنجایشی نامحدود،همه ساله محل اقامت مهمانان خدای
بزرگ می شود،همان خانه ملکوتی خداست و ضیافت خانه ی ملک پادشاهی پروردگار رحمان است،
که با عظمت بی نظیری،مانند قلعه ای بت برج وبا روهای بلند بر روی تپه ای از باغستان بهشت بنا
شده است،شهری که در آن این بار ملائکه به در نان خانه ی خدا طواف می کند،و برای پذیرایی
از مهمانان خدا محرم می شود...


grade

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farvardin

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review article:

review on control methods for bacteriological water quality

and biofilm in dental unit water systems

(scholars journal of applied medical sciences (sjams

.sch. j. app. med. sci., 2015; 3(2a):574-582

masoumbeigi hossein1, esmaeili davood2, yamchi hossein3*, sepandi mojtaba

abstract:

contamination of dental unit water systems (duws) to a variety of microorganisms and biofilm formation is one of the most important problems in dentistry centers against the proper operation of this units. this study was conducted to aim a review on identifying control methods for bacteriological water quality and biofilm in duwls and introducing effective solutions. a considerable number of articles published from 2000 to 2014 in the iranian and international scientific journal, final reports of the research projects, articles presented in the congress and student theses, with using standard and sensitive keywords were reviewed. then the articles which have inclusion criteria of the study, were selected and were carefully studied. review of selected studies indicated that different methods for the control of bacteriological water quality and biofilm in dental unit water systems were used. preventive measures, design and use of a central system of treatment and disinfection of entering water to the units, use of chemical disinfectants, flashing, genus and size of dental unit water pipe, properly designed unit by manufacturers, anti-retraction device (anti-return) and optimum operation are the main methods that were used in several studies. certainly, one method cannot be supply the standard for unit water quality and remove biofilm. but using different methods is necessary to reach this objective. the most effective method to reduce the microbial contamination load of water and reduce adverse effects on personal health and patients is preventing of biofilm formation, especially using enter of safe water to the dental unit in combination, with other control methods should be seriously considered. in addition, due to bacterial resistance against bactericides and their side effects, use of properly designed units that their mana ent is easy, can be minimized the problems.

keywords: biofilm, bacteriological water quality, dental unit water system (duws), disinfection, water mana ent system.

http://saspublisher.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/sjams-32a574-582.pdf


راهنمای جامع عیب ی و تعمیر لپ تاپ
نویسنده:جواد واحداحمدیان
در قرن بیست و یکم دنیای حیرت انگیز فناوری رایانه ای به سمتی پیش می رود که حداکثر اطلاعات در حداکثر فضا و با کمترین امکانات در دورترین نقاط قابل دسترسی می باشد .................................................................................
در این کتاب ابتدا به معرفی انواع رایانه های همراه و سایر دستگاه های مرتبط با آنها پرداخته و سپس اجزای رایانه های همراه را مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده . هدف اصلی این کتاب فراهم یک راهنمای کاربری برای کاربران رایانه های همراه می باشد . در این کتاب علاوه بر شناسایی انواع لپ تاپ ها و سخت افزاری های مرتبط با آن به بررسی مشکلات به وجود آمده نیز پرداخته .

ترجمه این مقالات موجود می باشد:

1- analysis of the financial parameters of serbian banks through the application of fuzzy ahp and topsis methods(تجزیه و تحلیل پارامترهای مالی بانک های صربستان با استفاده از روش تاپسیس و ahp فازی)

2- research on optimal operation method of large scale urban water distribution system( تحقیق بر روی روش عملیات بهینه سیستم توزیع آب شهری در مقیاس بزرگ)

3- employees perspective of organizational service quality orientation( دیدگاه کیفیت مداری کارکنان در خدمات سازمانی)

4- methodologies and literature review:multi-criteria decision aid in financial decision making

(کمک تصمیم گیری چند معیاره در تصمیم گیری مالی: روش ها و نقد و بررسی ادبیات موضوع)

5- oil and gas projects and project finance ( پروژه های نفت و گاز و تامین مالی پروژه ها)

6-the autonomist perspective(دیدگاه خود مختار)

7-project finance in developing countries(تامین مالی پروژه در کشورهای در حال توسعه)

8- the applicability of porter’s generic strategies in the digital age: umptions, conjectures, and suggestions(کاربرد استراتژی های عمومی پورتر در عصر دیجیتال: فرضیات، حدس ها و پیشنهادات)


ترجمه این مقالات موجود می باشد:

1- analysis of the financial parameters of serbian banks through the application of fuzzy ahp and topsis methods

(تجزیه و تحلیل پارامترهای مالی بانک های صربستان با استفاده از روش تاپسیس و ahp فازی)

2- research on optimal operation method of large scale urban water distribution system

( تحقیق بر روی روش عملیات بهینه سیستم توزیع آب شهری در مقیاس بزرگ)

3- employees perspective of organizational service quality orientation

( دیدگاه کیفیت مداری کارکنان در خدمات سازمانی)

4- methodologies and literature review:multi-criteria decision aid in financial decision making

(کمک تصمیم گیری چند معیاره در تصمیم گیری مالی: روش ها و نقد و بررسی ادبیات موضوع)

5- oil and gas projects and project finance

( پروژه های نفت و گاز و تامین مالی پروژه ها)

6-the autonomist perspective

(دیدگاه خود مختار)

7-project finance in developing countries

(تامین مالی پروژه در کشورهای در حال توسعه)

8- the applicability of porter’s generic strategies in the digital age: umptions, conjectures, and suggestions

(کاربرد استراتژی های عمومی پورتر در عصر دیجیتال: فرضیات، حدس ها و پیشنهادات)


?course: what is literature

the purpose of the present course is to introduce, study, and analyze a variety of modern and contemporary ideas and theories addressing the definition and function of literature. the students will learn to read and analyze literary works from different perspectives.

books: modernism by peter childs, norton anthology of english literature, norton anthology of american literature, routledge encyclopedia of literature and criticism

week 1 introduction

week 2

t.s.eliot: “tradition and individual talent”, hollow men, w.b.yeats: sailing to byzantium

book chapter: modernism: introuction

week 3

virginia woolf: the mark on the wall, d.h.lawrence: the snake

book chapter: modernism: interpreting and changing

week 4

james joyce: araby, extract from: portrait of artist as a young man

book chapter: interpreting and changing

week 5:

william faulkner: the sound and fury

book chapter: modernism: genres, art, and film

week 6:

the sound and fury

book chapter: genres, art, and film

week 7

harold pinter: the birthday party

book chapter: texts, contexts, intertexts

week 8

the birthday party

book chapter: texts, contexts, intertexts

week 9

sylvia plath, elizabeth bishop

week 10

marge piercy, wallace stevens, marianne moore

week 11

review

evaluation:

lecture: 20%

cl participation, reaction papers, presences: 30%

final exam: 50%


case reports in urology

metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma posing as urothelial carcinoma of the right ureter: a case report and literature review

tian-bao huang,1,2 yang yan,1 huan liu,1,2 jian-ping che,1,2 guang-chun wang,1,2 min liu,1,2 jun-hua zheng,1,2 and xu-dong yao1,2/1department of urology, shanghai tenth people’s hospital, tongji university, 301 yanchang road, shanghai 200072, china/2department of first clinical medical college, nanjing medical university, nanjing, jiangsu 210029, china/13 august 2014

this is a case report of a 67-year-old patient with distant metastasis of prostate cancer to the right ureter which caused hydronephrosis. at the beginning, both of the cytology of the morning urine and imaging findings were consistent with urothelial carcinoma. nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. interestingly, the pathological examination of the excised ureter revealed that the malignancy was derived from the prostate. no skeletal metastasis was detected. however, after four months of follow-up, several abnormal signal shadows were reported in skeletal scintig hy and the prostate specific antigen (psa) was gradually increasing. we present such a case for its unique presentation. a review of the literature is also provided.

source: volume 2014 (2014), article id 230852, 5 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/230852


dear mr. dr. rostam saberifar, and : mr. masoud.rasouli author of "impacts of land use and climate change on flood events (case study: ferdows)" (reference number: scijour-jre-201404-67) submitted to journal of river engineering. this is to inform you that the review process on your article is finished. here you can see the full review result. * editor-in-chief review result: conclusion: accept review: * reviewers review result: best regards, null null, editor-in-chief, journal of river engineering. date: 2014-05-21. -------------------------------------- scijour scientific journals publisher http://scijour.com/jour.ui/page/index.html?langid=en

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مقالات ارایه شده در اینجا چند مقاله ارزشمند از منتل هود در مورد اتنوموزیکولوژی است.

عنوان مقاله ها :

hood,mantle_ethno ology by jaap cunst_ review

hood,mantle_ethno ology's bronze age in y2k

hood,mantle_the ethno ology program

hood,mantle_training and research methods in ethno ology

مقالات


مقالات ارایه شده در اینجا چند مقاله ارزشمند از منتل هود در مورد اتنوموزیکولوژی است.

عنوان مقاله ها :

hood,mantle_ethno ology by jaap cunst_ review

hood,mantle_ethno ology's bronze age in y2k

hood,mantle_the ethno ology program

hood,mantle_training and research methods in ethno ology

مقالات


the fourth international conference on recent a nces in railway engineering (icrare2015) is aimed at to bring together engineers and researchers of the field to review and discuss the recent practical and theoretical methods/approaches and to address recent a nces, technologies and innovations in all disciplines of the railway engineering. after the successful experience of the icrare2009, this conference is now globally recognized and addressed in this research area. the conference is organized jointly by centre of excellence in railway transportation and school of railway engineering. extension of the selected papers are invited for a final review process in three international journals based on the paper subject, at iran university of science and technology.

http://icrare2015.iust.ac.ir/files/site1/ad/final-poster.jpg


acer aspire v3 review (3)

ایسر را می توان یکی از کمپانی های بی حاشیه بازار دانست، چرا که بدون هیچ سر و ص محصولات خوب و باکیفیتی را وارد بازار می کند و همچون دیگر کمپانی ها قابلیت هایش را در بوق و کرنا نکرده و خیلی ساده و بی آلایش کارش را به بهترین نحو ممکن انجام .....................



doses of at least 25 mcg linked to decreased nocturnal voids, increased time to first void

wednesday, sept. 24, 2014 (healthday news) -- desmopressin offers a modest benefit for treating nocturia in generally healthy adults, according to a systematic review published in the september issue of the journal of urology.

mark h. ebell, m.d., from the university of georgia in athens, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the benefits and harms of desmopressin as treatment for nocturia. a total of 10 articles involving 2,191 patients met the inclusion criteria of parallel group design, randomized, controlled trials with information on one or more benefit or harm of desmopressin in patients with nocturia. the studies were generally of high quality, although four studies were at high risk for bias.

the researchers found that there were decreases in nocturnal voids and increased time to first void with desmopressin doses of 25 mcg or greater. compared with placebo, a 100-mcg dose provided just over one hour of additional sleep before the first void and 0.72 fewer voids per night. there was no significantly increased benefit with higher doses. the most common adverse effects were hyponatremia (risk ratio, 5.1) and headache (risk ratio, 4.3), while serious adverse effects were rare.


ترجمه این مقالات موجود می باشد:

1- analysis of the financial parameters of serbian banks through the application of fuzzy ahp and topsis methods

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3- employees perspective of organizational service quality orientation

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 کتاب computational methods for fluid dynamics – ferzigner & peric

این کتاب یکی از جدیدترین کتاب های چاپ شده در زمینه cfd است که توانسته بسیاری از مطالب کاربردی اعم از روش های اختلاف محدود، حجم محدود، دقت و بازده الگوریتم عددی، حل جریان حول هندسه های پیچیده و … را به صورت یکجا و بسیار ساده بیان نماید.

computational methods for fluid dynamics – j.h. ferzigner & m.peric

contents

  1. basic concepts of fluid flow
  2. introduction to numerical methods
  3. finite difference methods
  4. finite volume methods
  5. solution of linear equation systems
  6. methods for unsteady problems
  7. solution of the navier-stokes equations
  8. complex geometries
  9. turbulent flows
  10. compressible flow
  11. efficiency and accuracy improvement
  12. special topics

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سلام

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1- accounting research; contemporary issues - دریافت فایل پاو وینت ارائه

2- how to get research ideas and research topic - دریافت فایل پاو وینت ارائه

3- literature review and documentation - دریافت فایل پاو وینت ارائه

4- presentation of doctoral proposal - دریافت فایل پاو وینت ارائه

5- importance of exposure of research work and early feedback from presentations - دریافت فایل پاو وینت ارائه


factors influencing the adoption of health information technologies: a systematic review

ali garavand, mohammah mohseni, heshmatollah asadi, manal etemadi, mohammad moradi-joo, ahmad moosavi

abstract

introduction: the successful implementation of health information technologies requires investigating the factors affecting the acceptance and use of them. the aim of this study was to determine the most important factors affecting the adoption of health information technologies by doing a systematic review on the factors affecting the acceptance of health information technology.

methods: this systematic review was conducted by searching the major databases, such as google scholar, emerald, science direct, web of science, pubmed, and scopus. we used various keywords, such as adoption, use, acceptance of it in medicine, hospitals, and it theories in health services, and we also searched on the basis of several important technologies, such as electronic health records (her), electronic patient records (epr), electronic medical records (emr), computerized physician order entry (cpoe), hospital information system (his), picture archiving and communication system (pacs), and others in the 2004-2014 period.

results: the technology acceptance model (tam) is the most important model used to identify the factors influencing the adoption of information technologies in the health system; also, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (utaut) model has had a lot of applications in recent years in the health system. ease of use, usefulness, social impact, facilitating conditions, attitudes and behavior of users are effective in the adoption of health information technologies.

conclusion: by considering various factors, including ease of use, usefulness, and social impact, the rate of the adoption of health information technology can be increased.

keywords: technology acceptance model (tam), acceptance, health information technology

the cost effectiveness of dynamic and static interspinous spacer for lumbar spinal stenosis compared with laminectomy

mohsen yaghoubi *, maziar moradi-lakeh, mohammad moradi-joo, vafa rahimi-movaghar, neda zamani , ahmad naghibzadeh-tahami

background: the present study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of dynamic interspinous spacer (coflex®) and static spacer (x-stop ®) compared to laminectomy (lami) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

methods: a decision-analysis model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness. the effectiveness parameters were obtained from a systematic literature review in relevant databases including pubmed and embase. a meta-analysis was performed using the stata statistical package and a random model was used to collect measures of mean difference of visual analogue scale (vas) pain score before and after intervention in x-stop, coflex and lami (95% confidence intervals). cost data were obtained from provider and ociated literature based on health care provider prospective. we umed that the probability of the success rate of surgery in each intervention from ociated literature and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratio. a one-way sensitivity analysis was also carried out.

results: twenty-four out of 294 studies are included in the meta-analysis. the overall pooled estimate of the mean difference of vas pain score were 3.49 (95% ci 3.7-4.2) and 4.14 (95% ci 3.09-5.19) for x-stop and coflex, respectively. in addition, we umed the overall pooled estimate of 5.3 (95% ci 2.15-7.4) on the basis of literature for lami. the average cost per lami surgery, x-stop and coflex was us$ 3019, us$ 2022 and us$ 2566, respectively. incremental cost effectiveness ratio of x-stop and coflex versus lami was us$ 665.9 and us$ 780.7, respectively.

conclusion: static interspinous spacer (x-stop) appears to be the most cost-effective treatment strategy in base case scenario with success rate of lami (range between (55%-70%). a sensitivity analysis shows that the increase probability of success rate of lami was more than 70 % and less than 55% which lead to the cost effectiveness of the coflex intervention.

keywords: laminectomy, interspinous, spinal stenosis, cost-effectiveness, lumbar vertebrae.,

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