جستجوی عبارت conversion and brainwashing in new religious movements



in a ceremony attended by iranian elites arabic and english version of the latest books in the field of theology and humanities were unveiled.

(ahlul bayt news agency) - “religious democracy” is the title for a compilation of 16 articles on religious democracy compiled by mohammad baqer khorramshad, head of the organization of culture and islamic relations.hujjat-ol-islam bahman akbari, head of the center for translation and publication of humanities and islamic teaching works said,” religious democracy is a phenomenon with more than 150 years of background.” and added that the phenomenon made its appearance after the victory of the islamic revolution of iran.chapters on democracy in qur’an and nahj al balagha, historical background of religious democracy and interviews with the elites on the meaning of religious democracy are among the chapters in this book.shaker kasraee, a translator of the arabic version of the book said the book is on the experience of the people on religious democracy in 1979, following the victory of islamic revolution in iran.ali nasiri, a translator for the english version of “religious democracy” noted that religious democracy has been an inseparable part of the political culture of islam, a theme which has always been challenged in muslim world.

http://www.abna.ir/english/service/publish-syte-software/archive/2013/02/03/387413/story.html


های دینی جدید: چالش و واکنش

جلال نبهانی زاده

رو مۀ شرق، شمارۀ 2033، یکشنبه 18 داد 1393، صفحۀ 7 ( شه)

موسی اکرمی، ، نویسنده و پژوهشگر شناخته شده، این بار ترجمه ای متمایز از کتاب « های دینی جدید: چالش و واکنش» ارایه داده است. این کتاب، گزینش و گزارشی است که از ویرایش 13مقاله به وسیله برایان ویلسن و جمی کرسول تهیه شده، با مقاله ای از آیلین بارکر در طرح تعداد و اهمیت های دینی جدید شروع می شود و با ارایه فهرستی جامع از های دینی جدید در انتهای کتاب به پایان می رسد. مقدمۀ 25 صفحه ای مترجم،


لینک های :

لینک1 :کلیپ زمان (عج) چشم امید علی فانی با کیفیت hd 720 - سایز ۹۵٫۶۰ مگابایت [فرمت: avi]

لینک 2: کلیپ اجرای زنده چشم امید - سایز ۳۷٫۰۲ مگابایت [فرمت: flv]

لینک 3: آهنگ چشم امید - سایز ۴٫۷۲ مگابایت [فرمت: mp3]

برگرفته از کمیاب آنلاین

کلمه عبور:www.kamyabonline.com


هر کجا بوى خـــــــــــــــــــــدا مى آید خلق بین بى سر و پا مى آید

زانک جان ها همه تشنه ست به وى تشنه را بانگ ســــقا مى آید

شـــــــیرخوار کرمـــــــند و نگـــــــران تا که مــــــــادر ز کجا مى آید


در فراقــــــــند و هـــــمه منـــــتظرند کز کجا وصــــــل و لقا مى آید


از مســـــــلمان و جــــــهود و ترســا هر سحر بانــــگ دعــا مى آید


خــــنک آن هوش که در گوش دلــش ز آســـمان بانگ صــلا مى آید


گـــــــوش خـــــود را ز جفا پاک کنـید زانک بانـــگى ز سمــــا مى آید


گـــــوش آلوده ننوشــــد آن بانــــــگ هر سزایى به ســـــزا مى آید


چشـــــم آلوده مکـــن از خد و خــال کـــان شهنشـــــاه بقا مى آید


ور شد آلوده به اشکش مى شــوى زانـک از آن اشـــک دوا مــى آید


کاروان شکر از مصـــــر رســـــــــــید شـــــرفه گــــــام و درا مـى آید


هین خمــــــــــش کز پى باقى غزل شــــــــاه گوینــــده مـا مى آید


motor learning

the internal processes that lead to an enduring change in a person'scapacity for

skilled movement. also the study of such processes.

------------------------

motor learning

motor learning is a "relatively permanent" change, resulting from practice or

a novel experience, in the capability for responding (guthrie, 1952). it often

involves improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements and is obviously

necessary for complicated movements such as speaking, playing the piano, and

climbing trees; but it is also important for calibrating simple movements like reflexes,

as parameters of the body and environment change over time.

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/motor+learning

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/motor+learning

مطالب مرتبط

medical terminology

موضوعات فیزیوتراپی

مقاله های دستگاه عصبی مرکزی و محیطی (cns & pns)

مقالات سیستم عضلانی-اسکلتی، بیماری ها و اختلالات مربوطه


separator-and-beautiful-religious-text.(www.shabhayetanhayi (15)

ما هم اگر مفیــــــــــد بودیم

هر چند خط بیعت ما نیــــست کوفی

تردید در آن ، از غم نان ، کشـــــت ما را

ما بر نمی گردیم از عشـــــــق تو ، مولا !

هر چند نَفسِ سُست پیمان ، کشـــــــت ما را

آدینه آمد نازنین ! اما تــــــــو … ؟! آری

دوری ز تو ای حضرت جان ! کشــــــت ما را

تصاویر- -زمانی3_www.shabhayetanhayi.ir (3)

وای بــــــــر مـــــا

ما هم اگر مفیــــــــــد بودیم

لابد برایمان نامه می نوشتی…

separator-and-beautiful-religious-text.(www.shabhayetanhayi (3)


اشکال پیش فرم اولیه preforming

· راهنمای فست ها faceting index conversion chart

· زاویه فست facet angles

· نسبت ابعاد رنگین length to width ratios

· میزان بازتاب نور light return

· محاسبه وزن نگین estimated weight



ان دفاع مقدس

نرم افزارصوتی تصویری ان دفاع مقدس یک نرم افزار در زمینه زندگی نامه ی ان دفاع مقدس می باشد در این مجموعه زندگینامه 12 شهید بزرگ به صورت صوتی و تصویری با حجم بسیار کم ارائه شده و . . .

(ادامه مطلب


در کتاب جمال الاسبوع از جعفر صادق(ع) منقول است

: هر بعد از عصر روز ده مرتبه بگوید:

اَللهمَّ صَلِّ عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ الْأوْصِیاءِ الْمَرْضییّنَ بِأَفْضَلِ صَلَواتِکَ وَ بارِکْ عَلَیْهِمْ بِأَفْضَلِ بَرَکاتِکَ وَ عَلَیْهِ وَ عَلَیْهِمُ السَّلامُ وَ عَلی اَرْواحِهِمْ وَ أَجْسادِهِمْ وَ رَحْمَهُ الله وَ بَرَکاتُهُ

ملائکه برای آن شخص از این تا دیگر در همین ساعت صلوات می فرستد.


این شب، از شب هاى بافضیلت و ارزشمندى است که براى آن اعمالى وارد شده است:


غسل.


شش رکعت (هر دو رکعت به یک سلام) که در هر رکعت، سوره هاى حمد و یس و ملک و توحید را بخواند.


صد رکعت ، که در هر رکعت بعد از حمد، ده مرتبه سوره «قل هو اللّه احد» را بخواند. از حضرت المؤمنین على(علیه السلام) از رسول خدا(صلى الله علیه وآله) روایت شده است که هر این عمل را بجا آورد خداوند ده فرشته را به سوى او بفرستد تا دشمنان را از او دفع کنند و سى فرشته را به هنگام مرگ نزد او بفرستد تا بهشت را به وى بشارت دهند و سى فرشته دیگر، تا او را از آتش دوزخ ایمن دارند.


زیارت حسین(علیه السلام). از صادق(علیه السلام) سؤال د که پاداش ى که در شب نیمه ماه رمضان کنار قبر حسین(علیه السلام) باشد چیست؟ فرمود:

خوشا به حال ى که در شب نیمه ماه رمضان در کنار قبر حسین(علیه السلام) بعد از عشا ده رکعت بگزارد، در هر رکعتى بعد از سوره حمد ده مرتبه قل هو الله احد را بخواند و از آتش دوزخ به خدا پناه ببرد; خداوند نیز به پاداش این عمل، نامش را «آزاد شده از آتش» ثبت فرماید و قبل از آن که بمیرد، فرشتگان به وى بشارت بهشت مى دهند و فرشتگان دیگرى، او را از آتش دوزخ ایمن مى دارند.


بهشت و باب روزه ‏دارن
قال رسول الله صلّى الله علیه و آله:ان للجنة بابا یدعى الریان لا یدخل منه الا الصائمون؛ براى بهشت درى است ‏به نام (ریان) که از آن فقط روزه‎داران وارد مى‏شوند.
(وسائل الشیعه، ج 7، ص 295، ح‏31/ معانى الاخبار، ص 116)

احادیث,حدیث درباره روزه,حدیث درمورد روزه و ماه رمضا

بهشت و باب روزه ‏دارن
قال رسول الله صلّى الله علیه و آله:ان للجنة بابا یدعى الریان لا یدخل منه الا الصائمون؛ براى بهشت درى است ‏به نام (ریان) که از آن فقط روزه‎داران وارد مى‏شوند.
(وسائل الشیعه، ج 7، ص 295، ح‏31/ معانى الاخبار، ص 116)

احادیث,حدیث درباره روزه,حدیث درمورد روزه و ماه رمضا

رسول خدا صلی الله علیه و آله و سلم در خطبه شعبانیه خود درباره فضیلت و عظمت ماه رمضان فرموده است: «ای بندگان خدا! ماه خدا با برکت و رحمت و آمرزش به سوی شما روی آورده است؛ ماهی که نزد خداوند بهترین ماه ها است؛ روزهایش بهترین روزها، ش بهترین شب ها و ساعاتش بهترین ساعات است.

بر مهمانی خداوند فرا خوانده شدید و از جمله اهل کرامت قرار گرفتید. در این ماه، نفس های شما تسبیح، خواب شما عبادت، عمل هایتان مقبول و دعاهایتان مستجاب است.

پس با نیت ای درست و دلی پاکیزه، پروردگارتان را بخوانید تا شما را برای روزه داشتن و تلاوت قرآن توفیق دهد. بدبخت ی است که از آمرزش خدا در این ماه عظیم محروم گردد. با گرسنگی و تشنگی در این ماه، به یاد گرسنگی و تشنگی قیامت باشید.»

آن گاه اکرم وظیفه روزه داران را برشمرد و از صدقه بر فقیران، احترام به سالخوردگان، ترحم به ک ن، صله ارحام، حفظ زبان و چشم و گوش از حرام، مهربانی به یتیمان و نیز عبادت و سجده های طولانی، ، توبه، صلوات، تلاوت قرآن و فضیلت اطعام در این ماه سخن گفت.

منابع :

مفاتیح الجنان، تفسیر نمونه، ج 1، ص 634؛ المیزان، ج 2، ص15


این دو رکعت است، در رکعت اوّل پس از سوره «حمد»، ده بار مى گویى:


رَبِّ اغْفِرْلى وَلِوالِدَىَّ وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنینَ یَوْمَ یَقُومُ الْحِسابُ.


پروردگارا بیامرز مرا و پدر و مادرم و دیگر مؤمنان را در روزى که حساب ب ا شود

و در رکعت دوم پس از سوره حمد، ده مرتبه مى خوانى:


رَبِّ اغْفِرْلى وَ لِوالِدَىَّ وَ لِمَنْ دَخَلَ بَیْتِىَ مُؤْمِناً وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنینَ وَالْمُؤْمِناتِ

پروردگارا بیامرز مرا و پدر و مادرم و هرکه در حال ایمان به خانه من درآید و هر مرد مؤمن و زن با ایمانى را


پس از سلام نیز ده بار مى گویى:


رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُماکَمارَبَّیانى صَغیراً.

پروردگارا ترحم کن بر ایشان چنانچه پرو د مرا در کودکى.


لینک های

اطلاعات ترتیل با صدای مشاری العفاسی، ترجمه مکارم با صدای کبیری
اطلاعات حجم: 1550 مگابایت | فرمت: mp3-64kb/s
فایل صوتی فایل صوتی سوره الفاتحه (به صورت نمونه)
 - بخش اول
 - بخش دوم
 - بخش سوم
 - بخش چهارم
 - بخش پنجم
 - بخش ششم

رمز فایل

www.p30 .com

http://pic.p o-aks.com/p o/images/religious/ramadan/medium/doa-ramazan.jpg

مَنْ قَرَأَ فِی شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ آیَةً مِنْ کِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ کَانَ کَمَنْ خَتَمَ الْقُرْآنَ فِی غَیْرِهِ مِنَ الشُّهُور

هر ماه رمضان یک آیه از کتاب خدا را قرائت کند مثل اینست که درماه هاى دیگر تمام قرآن را بخواند.

فضائل الاشهر الثلاثه ص 97 ، ح 82 - بحار الانوار(ط-بیروت) ج 93، ص 341


نرم افزاری در قالب 313 پرسش پیرامون زمان(عج) که قابلیت نمایش سوال و جواب در هنگام شروع ویندوز را دارد.

طراحی منحصر به فرد این پرسمان به گونه ای است که لحظاتی ما را با مفاهیم مهدویت و انتظار بیشتر مانوس نموده و بتواند ما را در مقابل تهدیدات و شبهات دشمنان دین و قرآن مستحکم تر سازد.
این اثر کاری ارزشمند از تیم نرم افزاری انجمن گفتگوی دینی وابسته به مرکز ملی پاسخگویی می باشد.

در ادامه مطلب


http://dl.aviny.com/ /screens s//big/religious/shoghe-entezar/screens -02.jpg

حجم 3.41 مگابایت



نیروگاههای جزر و مدی-نیروگاههای موجی-نیروگاههای مگنتو هیدرودینامیک (magneto hydro dynamics (mhd-نیروگاههای بیوماس-نیروگاههای زباله سوز بخاری-نیروگاههای گازی با سوخت ده چوب-نیروگاههای شکافت هسته -اینیروگاههای جوش (گداخت) هسته ای-نیروگاههای ترکیبی تولید کننده برق و انرژی حرارتی-نیروگاه تبدیل انرژی اقیانوسی (ocean thermal energy conversion (otec-نیروگاههای پیل سوختنی


brainwashing vs. totalitarian influence: summary of empirical conflicts

as we have shown, the cia brainwashing model which had been disconfirmed by lifton and others, as well as the body of research on nrms described above, provides the claimed theoretical foundation for all statements of brainwashing theory, including cultic brainwashing formulations such as zablocki’s. consequently, zablocki’s cultic brainwashing theory, like the earlier second stage statements of cultic brainwashing theory, such as those of singer and ofshe, is contradicted by its own claimed theoretical foundation, that is the research of schein and lifton. anthony’s 1990 article demonstrated that eight variables differentiated singer’s and ofshe’s second stage brainwashing theory from schein’s and lifton’s research. anthony’s 2001 article demonstrated the same set of conflicts between zablocki’s approach and generally accepted research on communist thought reform, and this article has demonstrated similar conflicts between all brainwashing formulations, including zablocki’s, and a large body of contemporary research on nrms.

as anthony argued in his 1990 article, schein’s and lifton’s research on communist forceful indoctrination practices disconfirmed the cia model with respect to 8 variables. these are: 1) conversion; none of schein’s and lifton’s subjects be e committed to communist worldviews as a result of the thought reform program. only two of lifton’s 40 subjects and only one or two of schein’s 15 subjects emerged from the thought reform process expressing sympathy for communism and none of them actually be e communists. communist coercive persuasion produced behavioral compliance but not belief in communist ideology (lifton, 1961, 117, 248-49; schein, 1958, 332, 1961, 157-166, 1973, 295.) 2) predisposing motives; those subjects who were at all influenced by communist indoctrination practices were predisposed to be so before they were subjected to them (lifton, 1961, 130; schein, 1961, 104-110, 140-156; 1973, 295); 3) physical coercion; communist indoctrination practices produced involuntary influence only in that subjects were forced to participate in them through extreme physical coercion. (lifton, 1961, 13; 1976, 327-328; schein 1959, 437[26], 1961, 125-127); 4) continuity with normal social influence; the non-physical techniques of influence utilized in communist thought reform are common in normal social influence situations. (lifton, 1961, 438-461; schein, 1961, 269-282, 1962, 90-97, 1964, 331-351 ) 5) conditioning; no distinctive conditioning procedures were utilized in communist coercive persuasion (schein, 1959, 437-438, 1973, 284-285; biderman, 1962, 550); 6) psychophysiological stress/debilitation; the extreme physically-based stress and debilitation to which imprisoned thought reform victims were subjected did not cause involuntary commitment to communist worldviews. (hinkle and wolff, 1956; lifton, 117, 248-49; schein, 1958, 332, 1961, 157-166, 1973, 295. moreover, no comparable practices are present in new religious movements (anthony, 1990, 309-311); 7) deception/defective thought; victims of communist thought reform did not become committed to communism as a result of deception or defective thought. (schein, 1961, 202-203, 238-39) 8) dissociation/hypnosis/suggestibility.those subjected to thought reform did not become hyper-suggestible as a result of altered states of consciousness, e.g. hypnosis, dissociation, disorientation, etc. (schein, 1959, 457; biderman, 1962, 550)

the primary basis for zablocki’s “exit costs” third stage brainwashing perspective is the notion that the research of lifton and schein had demonstrated that communist thought reform could bring about a conversion to the communism worldview that: 1) did not result from predisposing motives to respond favorably to communist ideology; 2) resulted rather from disorientation, suppression of critical thought, hyper-suggestibility, and the resulting inability to resist propaganda advocating an alternative worldview; 3) persisted once the thought reform process had been completed; 4) was difficult for the convert to communism to repudiate even at the point at which he or she desired to do so

as anthony demonstrates in various publications, however, (1990, 1996, 2001) all of these propositions were disconfirmed by schein’s and lifton’s research. none of their subjects be e communists at any point and only a very small number of them showed any degree of increased sympathy for communist ideas. those few who be e more sympathetic to communism did so because of predisposing motives to respond favorably to communist ideology rather than because of a disoriented state, decreased cognitive ability, hyper-suggestibility and a resulting inability to resist ideas to which they were not naturally attracted. furthermore, there was no evidence that those few subjects felt t ped or mentally imprisoned by their sympathy for some communist ideas.

it would seem that like singer’s and ofshe’s account of the brainwashing paradigm, zablocki’s “exit costs” brainwashing theory conflicts in fundamental ways with its claimed theoretical and empirical foundation of generally accepted research upon communist thought reform. if there is any scientific support for zablocki’s brainwashing perspective, it would it would have to come from sources other than its alleged relationship to communist thought reform. the abundant and methodologically sound research on nrms discussed in this article has also disconfirmed zablocki’s, as well as the other versions of the brainwashing idea.

in our earlier discussion on the history of the conversion concept, we showed that in western history the concept typically has been interpreted as the transformation of person’s identity to a form that embodies a deeper commitment to a religious worldview to which he was already superficially committed. it is only in relatively recent times that conversion has been seen as necessarily involving switching to a different religious worldview or organizational commitment.

the “conversion” or “born again” experience, common in western religious history from english and american puritanism to contemporary american revivals such as the ones conducted by billy graham, has typically not involved religious switching in the sense umed by some versions of cultic brainwashing theory. adopting a new worldview and changing one’s religious affiliation may or may not be as aspect of religious conversion, but it is the adoption of a “new” self and a “new” more religiously committed way of life that is the essence of conversion concept.

zablocki’s reinterpretation of the brainwashing concept as a coercively imposed transformation of identity and a dramatically enhanced degree of commitment to a pre-existing religious worldview is compatible with conversion in this traditional sense of the term. in terms of the scientific evaluation of the brainwashing idea, it is not really significant whether such coercive conversion to a different self and a deeper level of commitment to a religious worldview is conceptualized as occurring at the beginning of an attachment to a religious worldview, or whether such a conversion to a new self is coercively imposed after the initial commitment to the worldview has already begun. in either case, this transformation involves “conversion” in the sense of a religiously significant transformation of the self.

the key issue relative to the scientific standing of brainwashing theory is whether the transformation of self and commitment (whether to a new or to a pre-existing worldview) has been coercively imposed in a way that contradicts the free will of the individual, and whether that claim of coercive influence has been confirmed or disconfirmed by scientific research. as we have shown, in its major dimensions and empirical claims, zablocki’s “exit costs” formulation of the brainwashing idea is the same as the earlier versions of brainwashing theory that he claims to be repudiating as unscientific. zablocki’s formulation, like all other brainwashing formulations, is essentially a minor, cosmetically altered versions of the same basic theory. that core brainwashing theory has been conclusively disconfirmed in all of the realms in which it has been scientifically evaluated.

conclusion

this paper has achieved its purpose if it has raised some doubts about the simplistic extrinsic “brainwashing” model of participation in new religions or other social movements and suggested a more nuanced interactive model. those who undergo a conversion experience whether in their pre-existing or in a new religion tend to be “seekers” who experiment with the transformation self to a deeper and more religiously committed form.

notwithstanding some deception and manipulation in the self-presentation of some groups, there is generally some “elective affinity” between the group and the recruit, which commences a process of interaction in which certain types of individuals and certain types of groups jointly create a religious milieu. the group may strongly influence the devotee and play a necessary but not sufficient condition in the nature of his/her conversion to a new self, but devotees also influence the evolution of groups, especially when a group attracts many unstable persons or when participants’ orientations entail an expectation of strong, charismatic leadership.

recruits frequently defect when they perceive that a group does not meet their needs, is less ideologically or otherwise congruent with their predispositions, or is evolving in a problematic direction. the selectivity of potential recruits and potential defectors would appear to limit the application of the extrinsic model. moreover, contrary to the exit costs” interpretation of the brainwashing idea, the members of relatively totalitarian groups, which have high defection rates, are more apt to defect than members of more democratic groups. this would seem to indicate that so-called cults have lower rather than higher exit costs when compared to more democratic groups. there appears to be little evidence that people are confined in formally voluntary totalistic groups against their will, or that the “new self” resulting from a conversion experience in such groups is imposed in a way that is ego-alien and independent of the nature of their pre-conversion selves.

this paper has a subtext. the realities of recruitment, defection and authoritarianism in even totalistic “cults” cannot fully explain the fixation of the anticult movement on the use of “mind control” and allied constructs to characterize and stigmatize conversion/commitment processes in “cults.” elsewhere we have documented a latent or concealed concern with the content of cultic beliefs on the part of the fiercest critics of “destructive cults” (anthony, 1990; anthony and robbins, 1995b). as noted in our introductory section, through various “disestablishments” (hammond, 1992), american culture and religion has evolved in a direction in which personal autonomy, religious diversity and lifestyle choices have continually expanded. the proliferation of esoteric movements may reflect the emergence of a new “postmodern” cultural stage.

the authors believe that the anticult movement is a kind of revitalization movement for a “modern” (as opposed to postmodern) culture in which there has been considerable spiritual diversity yet less than the current disorientating explosion with its challenge to the dominant utilitarian individualist ethos. an additional dimension of the mind control fixation is related to the problematic quality of autonomy in the postmodern world in which an expansion of apparent diversity and choice co-exists with both a cultural celebration of individualism and latent anxieties over hidden threats to personal autonomy emanating from m advertising, state surveillance, new technology, the “iron cage” of bureaucratic rationalism, currents of fanaticism, etc. as james beckford suggested in cult controversies (beckford, 1985), the symbolic and social issues raised by controversies over cults may ultimately be more significant than the movements themselves.

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endnotes

[1] for summaries of conversion research in the 1970s and 1980s, see snow and machalek (1984) and robbins (1988, 63-99). see also machalek and snow (1993) and richardson (1993). for an overview of cult/brainwashing discourse, see dawson (1998, 102-127). see also zablocki and robbins, ed (2001) for several papers representing different perspectives on cult/brainwashing issues.

[2] see particularly flo conway and jim siegelman’s popular volume (1978. 2nd ed., 1986) snapping: america’s epidemic of m personality change.

[3] political and the utic ideologies such as marxism and freudian psychoanalysis may also qualify as varieties of self-estran ent theory.

[4] on suicidal/homicidal collective violence ociated with alternative religions, see robbins and palmer (1997), dawson (1998, 128-157), hall et. al., (2000), wessinger (2000), richardson (2001), anthony et. al., (2002). it is not the view of the present writers that there are no objectionable, disruptive or even pathological and dangerous elements ociated with some deviant religious movements (cf anthony et. al., 1991; robbins, 1997).

[5] conversion has often been thought of as something that happens to or is done to a more or less p ive recipient, e.g., saint paul being converted by a divine voice on the road to damascus. richardson (1985, 1993) argues that conversion is often a dynamic active endeavor on the part of the convert and particularly with regard to converts to new movements.

[6] majority opinion of judge stanley mosk, et. al., david molko and tracy leal vs. the holy spirit for the unification of world christianity. 762 p. 2d 46 (cal. 1988), p. 52.

[7] schein (1961, 125-127). elsewhere schein (1959) has suggested that elements of coercive persuasion may be found in many conventional institutions such as reputable religious orders, college fraternities, etc. this latter view expands the coercive persuasion idea beyond the setting of physical constraint but still affords little basis for separating “cults” from other institutions as distinctively coercive, i.e., coercive persuasion becomes nearly ubiquitous. see anthony and robbins (1992).

[8] lifton employs the term “brainwashing” a number of times in his book (1961), but generally puts the term in quotation marks. moreover, he demystifies the term, rejecting “an image of ‘brainwashing’ as an all-powerful, irresistible, unfathomable and magical method of achieving total control over the human mind.” such misleading and sen ional usage “makes the word a rallying point for fear, resentment, urges toward submission. justification for failure, irresponsible, accu ion and for a wide gamut of emotional extremism” (1961, 4). we would argue that lifton is not really writing in the brainwashing tradition of sargent, meerloo (1956) and others. he has been interpreted in this connection in part because of the cold war context, and partly because of the harsh conditions which the chinese officials imposed on his subjects and which he describes.

[9] darrow and simon were particularly predisposed or susceptible to manipulation by totalitarian captors because, as lifton notes, they lacked the strong beliefs and integrative totalist centre of their fellow captive, fundamentalist bishop barker. darrow and simon thus “responded very strongly to the opportunity to merge with the chinese people,” and through their embrace of new values and their evident “sincerity,” cope with their guilt feelings. “both achieved a greater harmony with their prison environment than with any they had previously known . .” (lifton, 1961, 218).

[10] this is not to say that the brutal treatment of their subjects by the chinese communists wasn’t atrocious or didn’t “cause” the conversions by compelling subjects to remain accessible to their captors. theorists in the crusade against cults maintain that deception employed by some cult recruiters (which appears to us as basically a foot-in-the-door tactic) is the functional equivalent of the raw physical constraint employed by totalitarian officials in initially bringing and keeping subjects in an indoctrination setting (delgado, 1977). it has also been claimed that the subtle and purely psychological (i.e., non-physical) persuasive methods of cults more potent and destructive than the crude tactics of communist totalitarians (ofshe and singer, 1986). of course, the use of physical coercion may well reduce the amount of authentic, persisting orientational shift (as opposed to short-term behavioral compliance), but simply because non-physically coercive methods may be more effective than crude constraint doesn’t mean that “subtle” non-physically coercive methods are more involuntarist.

[11] it is worth noting that the authoritarian personality (adorno, et. al., 1950) represents, in part the culmination of an initially european tradition of theorizing about the appeal of fascism that involved scholars such as hannah, arendt, william reich and erich fromm. as the cold war developed and concern shifted from fascism to communism the focus of inquiry shifted from the types of persons who are attracted to totalitarianism to the manipulative indoctrination methods employed by sinister communist regimes to remold followers (anthony and robbins, 1984). see erikson (1942) for an early contribution to the original european tradition of inquiry into the appeal of totalism which anticipates some of the ideas developed here.

[12] dr. barker’s book (1984) received the distinguished book award from the society for the scientific study of religion. in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the unification church (“moonies”) was in its heyday and was generally considered the most controversial and stigmatized “destructive cult.”

[13] barker’s analysis of the on-site intensive indoctrination process really picks up where zimbardo and hartley’s discussion of preliminary contacts with cult recruiters leaves off.

[14] levine (1984ab) claims to have heavily studied 15 groups and several hundred individuals. these are part of a larger group of about 1000 individuals who, as a the ist and consultant, he has had some contact with (or with their relative). the 1970s and 80s may have been the heyday of youth culture alternative religions.

[15] see reimer and reimer (1982), bromley (1987), wright (1988), rochford et. al., (1989) and wright and ebaugh (1993).

[16] see solomon (1981), wright (1984) and lewis (1986).

[17] this pattern is evident in a study of a racist christian identity group (young, 1990). “identity members engage in self-idealization” (1990, 150) and project defects and weaknesses on to outsiders. “to perceive oneself as pure, impure feelings and impulses must be projected into a world where they become embodied in others” (young, 1990, 157). the racist leader legitimates recruits’ existing pent-up hostility and directs it toward designated ideological scapegoats. “as a transitional object, the cult leader helps members express hostile impulses . . . when the cult leader initiates an antisocial act . . . cult leaders become free to act in a guiltless and violent way” (1990, 157). see also wright and wright (1980), an important theoretical piece on leaders of solidarity groups as parental surrogates and “transitional objects.”

[18] for evidence of elitism, paranoia and conspiracy theories in the church of scientology, see (surprisingly) the scientology handbook (1994), and official publication based on the writings of founder, l. ron hubbard. for discussions of elitism, volatility and antinomianism in various groups, see anthony, eckard and wilber (1988).

[19] in an unpublished but provocative study (jones, et. al.,) a hare krishna sample scored the highest among eleven samples of (mainly but not entirely unconventional) religious groups to whom was administered a revised authoritarianism (f. scale) measure in berkeley in 1980 under the supervision of r. nevitt sanford, one of the original co-authors of the authoritarian personality (adorno, et. al., 1950).

[20] the “dogmatism” construct and “d” scale were developed by milton rokeach in an attempt to refine the earlier “authoritarian personality” construct into a pure measure of cognitive style.

[21] anthony’s approach has served as the primary basis for legal briefs (motions in limine, summary judgment motions, appeal briefs) designed to convince judges to exclude cultic brainwashing testimony because of the unscientific character of the brainwashing formulations upon which it is based. (as a legal consultant and expert witness anthony has both testified against the scientific standing of cultic brianwsing testimony and has also helped lawyers in applying this approach to the legal issues and facts of specific cases.) see anthony 1990 for the original statement of the argument which has become the primary basis for legal briefs and testimony arguing the unscientific character of cultic brainwashing testimony; see anthony, 1996, 2000, and anthony and robbins, 1992, 1995a for elaborations of this basic argument and descriptions of its effects upon cultic brainwashing legal cases.

[22] on 223 zablocki quotes lifton as arguing that cults produce “doubling” in their converts. the quote from lifton is the following: “intense milieu control can contribute to a dramatic change of identity which i call ‘doubling’: the formation of a second self which lives side by side with the former one, often for a considerable period of time.” lifton, 1991, 2). i am not sure what lifton intended his readers to understand by this statement, but he could not accurately be claiming, as zablocki interprets him as claiming, that his “doubling” concept is equivalent to the brainwashing notion of a false or shadow self. lifton developed the concept of doubling, by which he meant the simultaneous existence of two radically dissimilar selves in the same person, which would express themselves in contradictory manners in different social contexts, to account for the behavior of nazi doctors who engaged in inhumane medical research in their nazi professional context, but who were during the same period humane and decent individuals with their families. (lifton, 1986; 1987, 195-208)
doubling as lifton defines it may be seen as an extreme example of the very different interpersonal styles which people in modern industrialized nations express in their professional and their personal lives. in the former they may be highly competitive (and metaphorically bloodthirsty) capitalists whereas in the personal context they may be humane and loving. the differences in ethical and interpersonal character of the same people in the economic vs. the personal spheres in a much remarked upon characteristic of modern societies which has served as a central organizing principle of major sociological theories, e.g. those of parsons and habermas.
on the other hand, zablocki’s and other brainwashing theorists conception of the false or shadow self, is very different than the concept of doubling in that it involves the notion of a new but inauthentic self which replaces the original and authentic self rather than living side by side with it at the same time in the same person. if the brainwashed person as described by zablocki, singer, and other cult brainwashing theorists were characterized by doubling they should be able to move smoothly back and forth between the cult and the pre-cult or familial contexts without apparent difficulty. but zablocki and his cohort describe the brainwashed person as being unable to this except with great difficulty. see for instance zablocki’s discussion of what he refers to as the “shadow self imbued with the cult ideology” on pgs. 236 and 237 of his 1998 article. see also west and martin, 1994)
doubling as lifton defines it, no matter how extreme, could not reasonably be interpreted as implying the involuntary, compulsive or addictive attachment to a false self that zablocki imputes to it. according to lifton, doubling is the normal means by which people choose to engage in immoral activity. as such it is voluntarily chosen by the person rather than being imposed upon him/her by an external agent or institution. in addressing the involuntariness issue relative to the doubling concept, lifton says:

in sum, doubling is the psychological means by which one invokes the evil potential of the self. that evil is neither inherent in the self nor foreign to it. to live out the doubling and call forth the evil is a moral choice for which one is responsible, whatever the level of consciousness involved. by means of doubling, nazi doctors made a faustian choice for evil: in the process of doubling, in fact, lies an overall key to human evil. (1986, 423, 424; lifton repeats the same quote in his 1987 article, 201)

[23] disorientation has an accepted and well-defined scientific meaning in only in two inter-related scientific field, i.e. psychiatry and neurology. in those fields, disorientation refers only to the specific lack of awareness of one’s identity, the time and date, and one’s geog hical location. see pbell, 1981, 180, 434. see also, webster’s unabridged dictionary, 1996, “disorient psychiatry. to cause to lose perception of time, place or one’s personal identify. in these definitions, personal identity refers only to literal awareness of one’s name and of one’s status as a specific psychological/physical entity with a specific physical and social history. it does not refer to the subtler and more controversial discontinuities in selfhood which are alleged to be a consequence of brainwashing. testing for “orientation” with respect to personal identity, place and time is generally the first test conducted in a standard psychiatric interview of mental status exam. disorientation in this sense is considered to indicate that the patient is suffering from a neurological rather than a psychological disorder, e.g. one of the senile dementias, or a toxic brain conditioned induced by drugs or physical disease.
in defining brainwashing as a process that is accomplished primarily by means of disorientation, zablocki appears to be giving the disorientation term a more metaphorical and less precise meaning than its scientific meaning in psychiatry, as a way of disputing the allegedly transcendent or mystical character of the altered states of consciousness in which religious influence often occurs. in this less precise form, however, disorientation is an evaluative rather than a scientific term, as it is unfalsifiable. that is, thus used, the term has no clear operational definition such that its presence could be disconfirmed in research on the conversion process. in discussing this issue with zablocki, he was unable to provide me with a precise scientific definition for his usage such that its absence in a specific instance could be empirically determined, and he questioned whether the term has the restricted meaning in psychiatry which i have specified above. however, he was unable to provide me with a citation to any other well-accepted and falsifiable usage in psychiatry or any other science.
indicated, in psychiatry or neurology, lack of orientation with respect to person place and time is considered to be diagnostic or some form of organic brain dysfunction, as opposed to the sorts of mental disease that have social environmental and psychodynamic causes. in the latter part of his 1998 article, -- zablocki claims that brainwashing has an organic basis (neuroendocrinological or neurophysiological) and is thus distinguishable from other forms of social influence on this basis. in using the term disorientation rather than hypnosis or trance, zablocki may have been implying this speculative organic basis for brainwashing. as i will discuss below, he bases his hopes that the brainwashing concept will some day be falsifiable on the umption that it has a distinctively organic basis. however, as he admits in that section, he cannot provide any scientific or empirically falsifiable basis for this speculation, and his vague and unfalsifiable use of the disorientation term seems consistent with this admission.

[24] zablocki does supply a scientific citation for his use of the term “hypnotic suggestibility” which he uses as an apparent synonym for the meaning he gives to the disorientation term in the p ages quoted above. on page 237 of his 1998 brainwashing article he claims that orne’s 1972 article reports research that demonstrates that people “can be hypnotized to do things against their will”. as we will discuss below, however, orne’s article demonstrates findings which are exactly the opposite of the conclusion that zablocki imputes to it, that is, orne’s research demonstrated that hypnosis cannot be used to get people to do things against their will. in zablocki’s case as is typical for brainwashing theorists, the terms for primitive consciousness viewed as essential for brainwashing are either so vaguely defined that they unfalsifiable, or when they are defined through a claimed basis in scientific research, that research is typically misinterpreted, as with zablocki’s and other brainwashing theorists’ claim that the brainwashing thesis is based upon lifton’s and schein’s research.

[25] in his 1980 book zablocki describes the disorientation and cognitive deficiency which he believes to be characteristic of the imposition of the brainwashed state thusly:

the cognitive disorder ociated with type 5, or absolute, charisma is submissiveness. the common manifestations of this among cult members, the gl y eyes, the hollow beaming smile, are too well known to need examples here. as many accounts of cult experiences have indicated a(e.g. edwards, 1979), these exaggerated symptoms of extreme cognitive submissiveness (turning off the mind) are a conditioned response, among cult members, to any challenge to the absolute truth of the cult reality. (zablocki, 1980, 332, emphasis mine)

on the next page zablocki describes the transition o roup from being a legitimate christian group to a brainwashed cult:

it was at this time also that the gl y-eyed, frozen smile look began to appear on the faces of the waystation members. in terms of our model this was a symptom of a crisis of self-estran ent. a sense of legitimate total commitment to the charismatic leader had given way to an artificial forced total commitment, maintained only through adherence to the mind-emptying discipline of submissiveness. (zablocki, 1980, 333, emphasis mine)

in his 1998 article zablocki acknowledges that research has demonstrated that such disorientation and defective cognition are not characteristic of allegedly brainwashed member so so-called cults (pg. 232), but he attempts to get around this by claiming that these qualities are only essential characteristics of cult converts during the process of brainwashing rather than after they have been successfully brainwashed. “the popular ociation of brainwashing with zombie or robot states comes out of a confusion between the physical characteristics of people going through the brainwashing process and the characteristics of those who have completed the process.” (232, emphasis his) in his earlier book however, he appears to be saying that such cognitive defects are continuing characteristics of cult members, i.e. “an artificial forced total commitment, maintained only through adherence to the mind-emptying discipline of submissiveness”. it is likely that this shift (from viewing disorientation and extreme cognitive defects as essential to the ongoing maintenance of brainwashed “forced total commitment” to the cult, to viewing disorientation and extreme cognitive defects as characteristic only of the process of brainwashing but not of continuing commitment to the cult), is an example of tactical ambiguity in the face of disconfirming evidence.

[26] schein states: “the coercive element in coercive persuasion is paramount (forcing the individual into a situation in which he must, in order to survive physically and psychologically, expose himself to persuasive attempts).”(1959, 437)


حرم حسین (ع) در کربلا معلی haram emam hosein

السلام علیک یا اباصالح ...

رمضان بیشتر خج میکشم آقا ...یادظهورشما می افتم.وآنانی که درآن حال و هوا زندگی میکنند . ی

نیست که اغواشان کند.وآنچنانند که ذاتشان اقتضامیکند.عمل میکنند راکه دست و پای این خسران دیده ی آتش

ذات بسته است .دست و پایی که آهسته آهسته به سمت افول هدایت میکند دلهای سست را...

اما آیا خط نامه ی عملم هم تغییرکرده یا همان است ؟همان که قبل از رمضان بود.آقامن همه ی تشنگی های

روزه را ...باخته ام.اگر آب حیات پرهیزراننوشانم.وضعفها و بریشانی را به آتش کشیدم اگر معنی اش را نفهمیده

باشم .وقتی یکی گم شده و گریه میکنند آدمهای عادی هم بیخیالش نمیشوند.مقصرم گمم.وشما بایک نگاه عادی

لبریزاز معرفت سازید این ه را....دلم این شبها پرازنیاز دیدن یک تصویراست...لحظه های افطارآب خوردن درددارد!


(ص) فرمودند:

مَن مشیِ إلی مسجدِ مِن مساجد الله ، فَله ُبِکُلِّ خُطٌوَةِ خَطاها حَتی یَرجعَ إلی منزله ، عَشرُحَسَناتٍ ، ومحی عنهُ عَشرُ سیئاتٍ و رفعَ لهُ عَشرُ درجاتٍ.

هر قدمی به سوی یکی از مساجد خداوند بردارد، برای هر قدم ثواب ده حسنه می باشد تا برگردد به منزل خود، و ده خطا از لغزش هایش پاک می شود ، همچنین در پیشگاه خداوند ده درجه ترفیع می یابد.


نکته ی مهم برای پذیرفته شدن توبه


بسیار پیش آمده است که ما آدمیان در رهگذر زندگی و در جای و جای و نقطه نقطه آن خطا رفته ایم، به بیراهه کشیده شده ایم، معصیت کرده ایم، و در ادامه آن پشیمانی سراغمان آمده است؛ استغفار کرده ایم.


دل را اگر از حسین بگیرم چه کنم

بی عشق حسین اگر بمیرم چه کنم

فردا که ی را به ی کاری نیست

دامان حسین اگر نگیرم چه کنم

والپیپر محرم حسین moharam hossein

فقیر روی حسینم که قبله ام عشق است


گدای کوی حسینم که قبله ام عشق است


به لطف دوست منم از تبار احبابش


محب کوی حسینم که قبله ام عشق است

http://pic.p o-aks.com/p o/images/religious/moharam/large/red_wallpaper_mah_moharam.jpg

الحق که به ما درس وفا داد حسین (ع)

هر چیز که داشت بی ریا داد حسین (ع)


یعنی که تأملی کنید ای یاران

آن هستی خود زکف چرا داد حسین (ع)؟…

و لحظه لحظه های این روزها عزادارند

دویده در رگشان خونی از محرم ها . . .

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَى الْحُسَیْنِ وَ عَلى عَلِىِّ بْنِ الْحُسَیْنِ

وَعلی اولاد الحسین عَلى اَصْحابِ الْحُسَیْنِ.

والپیپر های مخصوص محرم 93 hosein black wallpaper

یا حسین شهید


روش زندگی با مردم : با مردم آنگونه معا کنید، که اگر مردید بر شما اشک ریزند، و اگر زنده م د، با اشتیاق سوی شما آیند. (حکمت 10)

آیین دوست ی : ناتوان ترین مردم ی است که در دوست ی ناتوان است، و از او ناتوان تر آن که دوستان خود را از دست بدهد. (حکمت 12)

روش یاری مردم :از کفارة گناهان بزرگ، به فریاد مردم رسیدن، و آرام مصیبت دیدگان است.(حکمت 24)

ترس از خدا در فزونی نعمت ها : ای فرزند آدم ! زمانی که خدا را می بینی که انواع نعمت ها را به تو می رساند تو در حالی که معصیت کاری، بترس.(حکمت 25)


separator-and-beautiful-religious-text.(www.shabhayetanhayi (1)

separator-and-beautiful-religious-text.(www.shabhayetanhayi (21)

یا صاحب ا مان

خوب شد ، نیستی نمی بینی

کاسه های نداری ما را

فقر و ا، فساد، بیکاری

fahsha_www.shabhayetanhayi.ir

دختران فراری ما را...

farari- _www.shabhayetanhayi.ir

خوب شد، نیستی نمی بینی

که حیا از نگاه دنیا رفت

رزق و روزی خانه ها کم شد

قیمت نفت هر چه بالا رفت

خوب شد، نیستی نمی بینی

ما ش ته تر شده است

أین عمار” روی لب دارد … کجاست پسرفاطمه

ammar_www.shabhayetanhayi.ir


نویسنده: hazel henderson

موضوعات مقاله: آینده پژوهی، آینده نگری، آینده نگاری، شهروند، نوآوری اجتماعی

متن انگلیسی این مقاله در 25 صفحه با فرمت پی دی اف (pdf) به همراه ترجمه فارسی آن در 43 صفحه با فرمت ورد (word) قابل است.

برای مقاله و ترجمه آن به ادامه مطلب مراجعه فرمائید.


مداحی حاج محمود کریمی دهه اول محرم

1393




فرا رسیدن ماه محرم، ماه پیروزی خون بر شمشیر را بر عاشقان آن حضرت تسلیت عرض می کنیم .

به مناسبت این ماه مقدس و ایام سوگواری سرور و سالار شهیدان حضرت اباعبدالله الحسین (ع) مجموعه مداحی حاج محمود کریمی از دو هیآت رایه العباس (ع) و ثارالله (ع) گردآوری شده است.

اردوی محرم به دلم خیمه به پا کرد دل را حرم و بارگه خون خدا کرد


اطلاعات مداحی حاج محمود کریمی هیأت رایة العباس(ع)
 مداحی شب اول محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 78.0 مگابایت

 مداحی شب دوم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 76.2 مگابایت

 مداحی شب سوم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 70.8 مگابایت

 مداحی شب چهارم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 76.3 مگابایت

 مداحی شب پنجم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 79.3 مگابایت

 مداحی شب ششم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 77.7 مگابایت

 مداحی شب هفتم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 79.0 مگابایت

 مداحی شب هشتم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 91.1 مگابایت

 مداحی شب نهم محرم (تاسوعا) از حاج محمود کریمی - 95.6 مگابایت

 مداحی شب دهم محرم (عاشورا) از حاج محمود کریمی - 97.0 مگابایت


اطلاعات مداحی حاج محمود کریمی هیأت ثارالله (ع)

 مداحی شب اول محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 78.2 مگابایت

 مداحی شب دوم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 77.1 مگابایت

 مداحی شب سوم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 71.0 مگابایت

 مداحی شب چهارم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 62.7 مگابایت

 مداحی شب پنجم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 68.9 مگابایت

 مداحی شب ششم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 70.3 مگابایت

 مداحی شب هفتم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 81.7 مگابایت

 مداحی شب هشتم محرم از حاج محمود کریمی - 80.0 مگابایت

 مداحی شب نهم محرم (تاسوعا) از حاج محمود کریمی - 80.3 مگابایت

 مداحی شب دهم محرم (عاشورا) از حاج محمود کریمی - 105 مگابایت



روزی حسن علیه السلام با لباسى فا و وضعى آراسته و قیافه اى جذاب سوار بر مرکب خود شد و از منزل بیرون آمد، در بین راه یک یهودى فقیر با لباسهاى کهنه و اندامى ضعیف و لاغر به او برخورد کرد، از علیه السلام خواست توقف کند آنگاه ، در برابر او ایستاد و گفت : یا بن رسول اللّه ! جد تو (رسول خدا صلى اللّه علیه و آله ) مى فرمود:


الدنیا سجن المومن و جنه الکافر.


دنیا زندان مومن و بهشت کافر است .


و تو مومن هستى و من کافرم ولى دنیا را نمى بینم مگر اینکه بهشت توست ، از آن برخوردارى و لذت مى برى و زندان من است که سختى و فقرش مرا هلاک کرده است .


علیه السلام سخن او را شنید فرمود: اى پیرمرد! اگر به آنچه خداوند تعالى براى من و مومنین در بهشت آماده کرده است بنگرى که هیچ چشمى آن را ندیده و هیچ گوشى آن را نشنیده است خواهى فهمید که من قبل از ورودم به آنجا در این دنیا در زندانى تنگ بسر مى برم و اگر به آنچه خداوند از آتش و بدبختى و عذاب آ ت براى تو و هر کافر دیگر آماده کرده است بنگرى خواهى فهمید که تو قبل از رفتن به عالم آ ت در این دنیا در بهشتى وسیع و نعمتى کامل بسر مى برى .


روزی حسن علیه السلام با لباسى فا و وضعى آراسته و قیافه اى جذاب سوار بر مرکب خود شد و از منزل بیرون آمد، در بین راه یک یهودى فقیر با لباسهاى کهنه و اندامى ضعیف و لاغر به او برخورد کرد، از علیه السلام خواست توقف کند آنگاه ، در برابر او ایستاد و گفت : یا بن رسول اللّه ! جد تو (رسول خدا صلى اللّه علیه و آله ) مى فرمود:


الدنیا سجن المومن و جنه الکافر.


دنیا زندان مومن و بهشت کافر است .


و تو مومن هستى و من کافرم ولى دنیا را نمى بینم مگر اینکه بهشت توست ، از آن برخوردارى و لذت مى برى و زندان من است که سختى و فقرش مرا هلاک کرده است .


علیه السلام سخن او را شنید فرمود: اى پیرمرد! اگر به آنچه خداوند تعالى براى من و مومنین در بهشت آماده کرده است بنگرى که هیچ چشمى آن را ندیده و هیچ گوشى آن را نشنیده است خواهى فهمید که من قبل از ورودم به آنجا در این دنیا در زندانى تنگ بسر مى برم و اگر به آنچه خداوند از آتش و بدبختى و عذاب آ ت براى تو و هر کافر دیگر آماده کرده است بنگرى خواهى فهمید که تو قبل از رفتن به عالم آ ت در این دنیا در بهشتى وسیع و نعمتى کامل بسر مى برى .


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