جستجوی عبارت between nurses



کارخانه تولید کننده گریت وال

کشور تولید کننده ایران - چین

نام و مدل اتومبیل گریت وال هاوال (h6)

شرکت گارانتی/خدمات دهنده دیار خودرومشخصات فنی بدنه

کلاس بدنه شاسی بلند

ابعاد

وزن 1675 کیلوگرم

تعداد فضای سرنشینان 5

ابعاد و نوع لاستیک چرخهای جلو 225/65 r 17

ابعاد و نوع لاستیک چرخهای عقب 230/65 r 17مشخصات فنی موتور

حجم موتور 2378 cc

نوع موتور بنزین سوز

تعداد سیلندرها 4

تعداد سوپاپ ها 16

آرایش قرار گیری سیلندرها خطی مستقیم

محل قرار گیری موتور موتور جلو

سیستم سوخت رسانی انژکتوری پاشش چند نقطه ای

ظرفیت باک 58 لیتر

حداکثر توان وجی (دور بر دقیقه / اسب بخار) 162 اسب بخار در 5400 دور در دقیقه

حداکثر گشتاور وجی (دور بر دقیقه / نیوتن متر) 210 نیوتون متر در 3000 تا 4500 دور در دقیقه

توان وجی حجمی (اسب بخار بر لیتر) 67 لیتر براسب بخارمشخصات جعبه دنده ( transmission )

نوع جعبه دنده جعبه دنده اتوماتیک

تعداد دنده (جلو) 4

محل قرار گیری اهرم تعویض دنده کنسول میانی

سیستم حرکتی خودرو (انتقال قدرت) موتور جلو دیفرانسیل جلو سیستم ترمزها

نوع سیستم ترمز روغنی با بوستر خلائی

نوع دیسک و کالیبر ترمز جلو دیسکی خنک شونده با هوا

نوع دیسک و کالیبر ترمز عقب دیسکی سیستم تعلیق و فرمان

نوع سیستم تعلیق مستقل برای هر چرخ

تعلیق جلو مک فرسون

تعلیق عقب طبق دار دوبل مستقل

کمک فنرهای جلو هیدرولیکی

کمک فنرهای عقب فنر پیچشی

نوع سیستم فرمان قدرت کمکی هیدرولیکیعملکرد اتومبیل

استاندارد آلایندگی یورو 4

کیسه های هوا ( نوع و تعداد ) 2 عدد ، کیسه هوای راننده و سرنشین جلو

سیستم های پایداری و کمک راننده abs دارای 4 کاناله به همراه bas و ebd

سیستم های امنیتی و حفاظتی سیستم هشدار دهنده باز بودن دربها ، قفل ایمنی کودک ، قفل مرکزی به همراه ریموت کنترل ، سیستم ضد سرقت ، سیستم هشدار دهنده باز بودن درب و tpms سیستم کنترل فشار باد تایر

سیستم فرمان و هدایت پذیری قدرت کمک هیدرولیکی

نوع غربیلک کنترل سیستم صوتی از روی غربیلک فرمان

سیستمهای تهویه مطبوع کنترل دستی

سیستم صوتی و تصویری رادیو پخش mp3 / cd به همراه 6 بلند گو

سیستمهای مولتی مدیا

سیستم صندلیهای جلو تنظیم دستی ، روکش چرم

سیستم صندلیهای عقب روکش چرم

سیستم آیینه ها تنظیم برقی ، دارای راهنما

سیستم شیشه ها بالابر شیشه های جلو و عقب برقی ، گرمکن شیشه عقب ، دارای سیستم پاور ویندو ، برف پاک کن عقب ، شیشه عقب

سیستم های سقف سان روف دو ح ه برقی با شیشه چاپ سیلک مانع تابش مستقیم نور خورشید

سیستم روشنایی جلو قابلیت تنظیم نور چراغها ، چراغهای هالوژن دارای مه شکن ، سنسور روشن شدن خ ر چراغها

سیستم روشنایی عقب چراغهای led به همراه مه شکن

سنسورهای پیش فعال


اختصاصی از یاری فایل مقاله روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری 2 با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 2

 

the differences between a nurse and a doctor

both doctors and nurses are obviously important to the medical industry. one provides opinions and diagnosis while the other offers aid and physical treatment. in short, they are both complementary factors to what makes a medical facility operate smoothly. thus, comparisons made between nurses and doctors are to be made carefully. to say that a nurse is at a level lower than that of doctors is not accurate as there are multiple positions within the nursing vocation. it is the same for doctors as well.

there are staff nurses, who are also known as licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, administrative nurses, head nurses and a nced practice nurses, who are allowed to make prescriptions like doctors. doctors who usually lead the pack when it comes to a routine medical treatment can also be differentiated to primary care doctors (or general practitioners), dentists, surgeons, and specialists of various departments in healthcare.

in hospitals, nurses are the limbs while doctors are the eyes and brains. neither can work without the other's presence. without doctors, the patient's diagnosis would not be delivered whereas without nurses, the medical treatment and other services would be put to a halt. nurses conduct every form of activity from seemingly minor needs like changing the bed sheets and fixing meals, to drawing blood and handling medical equipment and machinery. nevertheless, nurses are not authorized to do any of these tasks without a doctor's approval. they take the bigger share of the tasks, whilst doctors take the bigger portion of the responsibilities and decision making. as for which job is tougher to handle, the answer will always be subjective. interpreting a patient's results may be hard but preparing the patient as well as the machinery for testing and results can never be proven to be an easier task.

apart from that, doctors are limited to their specialized field whereas nurses are able to work across several wards or units depending on their job descriptions. doctors need to be specialized in order to fully ess the roots of an illness or a problem. for nurses, their specialty is more task-oriented and patient-oriented. once a doctor is convinced that a patient's condition is out of his specialty range, he will refer the patient to a colleague who has a better understanding of that condition. the nurses, however, are to inform the replacement doctor of the patient's condition and subsequently follow up with the patient's progress until he/she leaves the hospital.

in addition, nurses enjoy a closer relationship with their patients as compared to doctors since they have more direct contact with them. doctors also have a constant need to detach themselves emotionally from a patient so as to be able to continue with their work. as a result, patients will often times identify better with nurses than with doctors, usually showing their preference by the form of the co-operation they offer.

on top of that, doctors need to read a lot and thus take a longer time to acquire new and accurate knowledge whereas nurses rely more on their experience to provide the best treatment possible. this is not to say that nurses do not study and a nce in terms of education levels. nurses in fact are able to study for bachelor's degrees, master's degrees and doctorate degrees in nursing.

therefore, the more education a nurse receives, the better the chances of gaining better income levels. this sometimes brings an overlap of authority that becomes a source of disputes between doctors and nurses. doctors generally have authority over their patient's conditions and treatment and will then require the nurses to implement certain procedures. however, when priorities collide, doctors may need to succumb to the authority figures of head nurses or head units since the latter group has managerial control over a specific ward, floor or unit. the same authority overlap problem also occurs when new practicing doctors first join a medical facility. experienced nurses tend to question analysis given by the young doctors since nurses' knowledge is based on actual past experiences, not from theories. nevertheless, in general, the two share a mutual respect for each other's responsibilities.

one of the greatest differences between nurses and doctors is salary. nurses have one of the most diverse salary ranges since there are many different levels within the nursing profession. staff nurses start off with an average starting pay of $39,000 while registered nurses usually earn an average of $57,000 per year. a nced practice nurses are among a higher earning group with nurse anesthetists earning the highest—$157,000 per year.

general doctors earn an average of $160,000 per year whilst physicians that work in emergency rooms and in surgery average a $240,000 yearly income. doctors with higher pays usually get higher respect and a higher societal status for being a walking encyclopedia whereas nurses who go about making life easier for the patients may not get quite the amount of respect they deserve. of all the differences between nurses and doctors, this glaring disparity is one that has been around for ages and will continue to be a part of the medical profession for years to come.


با


مقاله روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری 2

اختصاصی از یارا فایل تحقیق درمورد روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 7

 

like this? | where can you find more information?

 

 

what is this job like?

back to top

nurses, also called registered nurses or rns, take care of sick and injured people. they give people medicine. they treat wounds. and they give emotional support to patients and their families.

nurses ask patients about their symptoms and keep detailed records. they watch for signs that people are sick. then, nurses help doctors examine and treat patients.

some nurses help to give tests to find out why people are sick. some also do lab work to get test results.

nurses also teach people how to take care of themselves and their families. some nurses teach people about diet and exercise and how to follow doctors' instructions. some nurses run clinics and immunization centers.

nurses can focus on treating one type of patient, such as babies or children. they can also focus on one type of problem. some focus on helping doctors during surgery, for example. others work in emergency rooms or intensive care units.

many nurses work in doctors' offices. they help with medical tests, give medicines, and dress wounds. some also do lab and office work.

home health nurses go to people's homes to help them. flight nurses fly in helicopters to get to sick people in emergencies.

some nurses have special training and can do more a nced work. nurse practitioners can prescribe medicine. nurse midwives can help women give birth.

helping sick people and dealing with medical emergencies can be stressful. nurses in hospitals often have to help many patients at once.

many nurses spend a lot of time walking and standing. nurses also need to be careful in order to stay safe. nurses care for people who have diseases that they can catch too. and nurses can get hurt while helping to move patients. nurses also need to guard against radiation from x-rays and chemicals in medicine.

because patients need 24-hour care, hospital nurses often work nights, weekends, and holidays. office nurses are more likely to work regular hours. many nurses work part time.

how do you get ready?

back to top

nurses must graduate from a nursing program. it takes about 2 years of college to finish an ociate degree in nursing. it takes about 4 years to finish a bachelor's degree in nursing. and a nursing diploma program usually takes about 3 years.

deciding what kind of training to get is important. some career paths are open only to nurses who have a bachelor's degree.

nursing education includes taking cl es and hands-on learning with experienced nurses in hospitals and other places. this is called clinical training.

nurses study anatomy, chemistry,


با


تحقیق درمورد روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری

اختصاصی از یارا فایل تحقیق و بررسی در مورد روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 7

 

like this? | where can you find more information?

 

 

what is this job like?

back to top

nurses, also called registered nurses or rns, take care of sick and injured people. they give people medicine. they treat wounds. and they give emotional support to patients and their families.

nurses ask patients about their symptoms and keep detailed records. they watch for signs that people are sick. then, nurses help doctors examine and treat patients.

some nurses help to give tests to find out why people are sick. some also do lab work to get test results.

nurses also teach people how to take care of themselves and their families. some nurses teach people about diet and exercise and how to follow doctors' instructions. some nurses run clinics and immunization centers.

nurses can focus on treating one type of patient, such as babies or children. they can also focus on one type of problem. some focus on helping doctors during surgery, for example. others work in emergency rooms or intensive care units.

many nurses work in doctors' offices. they help with medical tests, give medicines, and dress wounds. some also do lab and office work.

home health nurses go to people's homes to help them. flight nurses fly in helicopters to get to sick people in emergencies.

some nurses have special training and can do more a nced work. nurse practitioners can prescribe medicine. nurse midwives can help women give birth.

helping sick people and dealing with medical emergencies can be stressful. nurses in hospitals often have to help many patients at once.

many nurses spend a lot of time walking and standing. nurses also need to be careful in order to stay safe. nurses care for people who have diseases that they can catch too. and nurses can get hurt while helping to move patients. nurses also need to guard against radiation from x-rays and chemicals in medicine.

because patients need 24-hour care, hospital nurses often work nights, weekends, and holidays. office nurses are more likely to work regular hours. many nurses work part time.

how do you get ready?

back to top

nurses must graduate from a nursing program. it takes about 2 years of college to finish an ociate degree in nursing. it takes about 4 years to finish a bachelor's degree in nursing. and a nursing diploma program usually takes about 3 years.

deciding what kind of training to get is important. some career paths are open only to nurses who have a bachelor's degree.

nursing education includes taking cl es and hands-on learning with experienced nurses in hospitals and other places. this is called clinical training.

nurses study anatomy, chemistry,


با


تحقیق و بررسی در مورد روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری

اختصاصی از سورنا فایل تحقیق درباره روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 7

 

like this? | where can you find more information?

 

 

what is this job like?

back to top

nurses, also called registered nurses or rns, take care of sick and injured people. they give people medicine. they treat wounds. and they give emotional support to patients and their families.

nurses ask patients about their symptoms and keep detailed records. they watch for signs that people are sick. then, nurses help doctors examine and treat patients.

some nurses help to give tests to find out why people are sick. some also do lab work to get test results.

nurses also teach people how to take care of themselves and their families. some nurses teach people about diet and exercise and how to follow doctors' instructions. some nurses run clinics and immunization centers.

nurses can focus on treating one type of patient, such as babies or children. they can also focus on one type of problem. some focus on helping doctors during surgery, for example. others work in emergency rooms or intensive care units.

many nurses work in doctors' offices. they help with medical tests, give medicines, and dress wounds. some also do lab and office work.

home health nurses go to people's homes to help them. flight nurses fly in helicopters to get to sick people in emergencies.

some nurses have special training and can do more a nced work. nurse practitioners can prescribe medicine. nurse midwives can help women give birth.

helping sick people and dealing with medical emergencies can be stressful. nurses in hospitals often have to help many patients at once.

many nurses spend a lot of time walking and standing. nurses also need to be careful in order to stay safe. nurses care for people who have diseases that they can catch too. and nurses can get hurt while helping to move patients. nurses also need to guard against radiation from x-rays and chemicals in medicine.

because patients need 24-hour care, hospital nurses often work nights, weekends, and holidays. office nurses are more likely to work regular hours. many nurses work part time.

how do you get ready?

back to top

nurses must graduate from a nursing program. it takes about 2 years of college to finish an ociate degree in nursing. it takes about 4 years to finish a bachelor's degree in nursing. and a nursing diploma program usually takes about 3 years.

deciding what kind of training to get is important. some career paths are open only to nurses who have a bachelor's degree.

nursing education includes taking cl es and hands-on learning with experienced nurses in hospitals and other places. this is called clinical training.

nurses study anatomy, chemistry,


با


تحقیق درباره روشهای تقسیم کار در بین پرستاری

لیست سؤالات سالیانه کارشناسی ارشد تمامی رشته های پیرا پزشکی

سال های 86-80 موجود است

آمار زیستی ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش بهداشت ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش پزشکی

اپید میولوژی

اعضاء

اقتصاد بهداشت ۹۴-۹۳

انگل شناسی

ایمنی شناسی

بافت شناسی

نمونه سوالات ارشد و ی بهداشت حرفه ای : ۹۳-۸۰

منابع مفید برای هر درس:

بهداشت حرفه ای : هر کت با موضوع بهداشت حرفه ای مفید میباشد ولی کتابهای نامبرده در دسترس و نسبتا کامل میباشند .

ارگونومی : ی عوامل انسانی چوبینه و مکانیک بدن و اصول طراحی ایستگاه کار ( ارگونومی ) / عبدلی ارمکی ، مدیریت کاربرد ارگونومی / حبیبی

تهویه صنعتی : تهویه صنعتی / جعفری و تهویه صنعتی/ متین

صدا و ارتعاش: ی صدا / گلمحمدی

ایمنی: ی ایمنی / محمد فام و جعفری

حریق: ی حریق / گلمحمدی

عوامل شیمیایی : نمونه برداری و تجزیه آلاینده های محیط کار جلد 1و2 و۳ بهرامی

شرایط جوی : تنش های حرارتی محیط کار گلبابایی

سم شناسی: سم شناسی صنعتی جلد 1و2 ثنایی و مقدمه ای بر سم شناسی ن تیمبرل - و سم شناسی شغلی / شاه طاهری

بیماریها :

طب کار و بیماریهای شغلی حسن آبادی

طب کار جلد 1و2 عقیلی نژاد

مسمومیت های ناشی از کار قضایی

کتاب oht تست های طبقه بندی شده بهداشت حرفه ای/ داود افشار ( جلد ۳- ۱ )

کلیات بهداشت حرفه ای تالیف علیرضا چوبینه از شیراز

بهداشت کار تالیف پریوش حلم سرشت و علیرضا چوبینه

بیوشیمی

بیوشیمی بالینی

پرستاری

ه شناسی

رفاه اجتماعی

روانشناسی بالینی

ژنتیک انسانی

سم شناسی

علوم تشریحی ( آناتومی )

علوم تغذیه ۹۳-۸۰

علوم و صنایع غذایی

فیزیک پزشکی

فیزیولوژی

قارچ شناسی

کاردرمانی روانی

کتابداری و اطلاع رسانی پزشکی

مامائی

مدارک پزشکی

مدد کاری اجتماعی

مدیریت توانبخشی

مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی

ی پزشکی

میکروبشناسی

ویروس شناسی

هماتولوژی


لیست سؤالات سالیانه کارشناسیارشد تمامی رشته های پیرا پزشکی

برای تهیه منابع رشته های بهداشتی و تغذیه به سایت ما مراجع فرمائید

http://www.sababook.

سال های 94-80 موجود است

آمار زیستی ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش بهداشت ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش پزشکی

اپید میولوژی

اعضاء

اقتصاد بهداشت ۹۴-۹۳

انگل شناسی

ایمنی شناسی

بافت شناسی

نمونه سوالات ارشد و ی ی بهداشت حرفه ای : ۹4-۸۰

نمونه سوالات ارشد و ی ی بهداشت محیط

بیوشیمی

بیوشیمی بالینی

پرستاری

ه شناسی

رفاه اجتماعی

روانشناسی بالینی

ژنتیک انسانی

سم شناسی

علوم تشریحی ( آناتومی )

علوم تغذیه ۹4-۸۰

علوم و صنایع غذایی

فیزیک پزشکی

فیزیولوژی

قارچ شناسی

کاردرمانی روانی

کتابداری و اطلاع رسانی پزشکی

مامائی

مدارک پزشکی

مدد کاری اجتماعی

مدیریت توانبخشی

مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی

ی پزشکی

میکروبشناسی

ویروس شناسی

هماتولوژی


لیست سؤالات سالیانه کارشناسی ارشد تمامی رشته های پیرا پزشکی

برای تهیه منابع رشته های بهداشتی و تغذیه به سایت ما مراجع فرمائید

http://www.sababook.

سال های 94-80 موجود است

آمار زیستی ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش بهداشت ۹۳-۸۰

آموزش پزشکی

اپید میولوژی

اعضاء

اقتصاد بهداشت ۹۴-۹۳

انگل شناسی

ایمنی شناسی

بافت شناسی

نمونه سوالات ارشد و ی ی بهداشت حرفه ای : ۹4-۸۰

نمونه سوالات ارشد و ی ی بهداشت محیط

بیوشیمی

بیوشیمی بالینی

پرستاری

ه شناسی

رفاه اجتماعی

روانشناسی بالینی

ژنتیک انسانی

سم شناسی

علوم تشریحی ( آناتومی )

علوم تغذیه ۹4-۸۰

علوم و صنایع غذایی

فیزیک پزشکی

فیزیولوژی

قارچ شناسی

کاردرمانی روانی

کتابداری و اطلاع رسانی پزشکی

مامائی

مدارک پزشکی

مدد کاری اجتماعی

مدیریت توانبخشی

مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی

ی پزشکی

میکروبشناسی

ویروس شناسی

هماتولوژی


اختصاصی از هایدی کتاب essentials of pharmacology for nurses - ویرایش سوم (2015) با و پر سرعت .

کتاب essentials of pharmacology for nurses - ویرایش سوم (2015)


کتاب essentials of pharmacology for nurses - ویرایش سوم (2015)

کتاب essentials of pharmacology for nurses - ویرایش سوم (2015)

ناشر کتاب: mcgraw-hill

نویسندگان: p. barber و d. robertson

فایل pdf کتاب به زبان انگلیسی و در 274 صفحه است.

فایل pdf با بهترین کیفیت و با قابلیت جستجو در متن و کپی برداری از متن است.


با


کتاب essentials of pharmacology for nurses - ویرایش سوم (2015)

تست هوش تصویری و بازی پیدا اختلاف بین تصاویر همراه با جواب

تصویر شماره 1

پیدا اختلاف تصاویر,تست هوش,معما,اختلاف بین تصاویر,پیدا اختلاف بین تصاویر

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تست هوش تصویری و بازی پیدا اختلاف بین تصاویر

پیدا اختلاف تصاویر


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تست هوش تصویری و بازی پیدا اختلاف بین تصاویر

پیدا اختلاف تصاویر


abstract

the current research was conducted to determine the comparison of hatchability and some egg quality characteristics in spotted and unspotted partridge (alectoris chukar) eggs. the research was carried out on 51 male and 102 female chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) aged 50 wk, which were raised at the research and application farm of the faculty of veterinary medicine of selcuk university. in total, 244 spotted and 261 unspotted eggs were used in the research. the hatching eggs were stored at 75% rh and 13°c for 14 d. thirty spotted and 30 unspotted eggs laid on the same day were used for the evaluation of egg quality characteristics. egg weight, chick weight, egg weight loss during the hatching period, shape index, hatchability, and some egg quality characteristics were evaluated at the end of the research. spotted eggs exhibited a higher fertility and hatchability, as well as a lower percentage egg weight loss and embryonic mortality when compared with unspotted eggs. no significant differences were observed between spotted and unspotted eggs for egg weight, chick weight, shape index, specific gravity, albumen height, haugh unit, yolk color green-red chromaticity (a*), albumen ph, and yolk ph. spotted eggs had higher eggshell color a*, eggshell color blue-yellow chromaticity (b*), and eggshell strength, as well as a lower eggshell color light-dark chromaticity (l*), yolk color l*, and yolk color b* scores when compared with unspotted eggs. it was demonstrated that spots on the eggshells of chukar partridges (alectoris chukar) improved their hatchability by affecting various quality characteristics of their eggs. it was concluded that spotted eggs are more suitable for hatching.

key words

primary audience:researchers, hatchery managers, veterinarians, game bird producers

description of problem

although mostly raised as game stock and for recreational purposes, in the past decade, partridges have become one of the major alternative poultry species produced intensively. partridges are of economic significance in many regions of the world. to ensure profitability in partridge production systems, it is required that proper hatching eggs are selected and appropriate hatching conditions are provided [1, 2].

partridges are birds belonging to the alectoris and perdrix genera, which are member to the phasinidae family. partridge breeds, including the rock partridge (alectoris graeca), the gray partridge (perdix perdix), the see-see partridge (ammoperdix griseogularis), and the chukar partridge (alectoris chukar), are known to be found in turkey [3]. of these breeds, the rock and chukar partridges have been investigated most extensively [4, 5].

it has been reported that, in partridges, egg weight varies between 17 and 24 g, chick weight between 11 and 15 g, egg weight loss during hatching between 9 and 26%, and egg shape index between 74 and 77% [1, 2, 6, 7]. furthermore, it has been indicated that, owing to different mana ent conditions and differences in age, breed, egg weight, as well as egg-turning and storage periods, measurements of hatchability, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality rates vary between 43.3 to 86.4%, 50.0 to 90.08%, 80.0 to 97.33%, and 4.7 to 14.56%, respectively [2, 4, 79].

in a study conducted in broiler chickens, sekeroglu and duman [10] reported that eggshell color had effects on some egg quality characteristics and hatchability results. many researchers have suggested that the specific gravity of partridge eggs ranges between 0.933 and 1.07 and haugh unit ranges between 72.73 and 96.94 [8, 1114]. krawczyk [15] determined the shell strength of eggs of the greenleg partridge as 2.09 to 3.07 kg. scott and silversides [16] and silversides and scott [17] indicated that, varying with breed, age, and storage periods, the albumen ph of hen eggs ranged between 7.31 and 9.38. albumen and yolk ph values of hen eggs have been reported as 9.16 and 6.27, respectively, by ahn et al. [18].

it has been indicated that multiple factors exist that affect egg quality characteristics and hatchability results in different avian species (genetic factors, male-female proportion, egg weight, egg characteristics, age, storage period, feeding, weight of breeder animals, and so on). eggshells with a paler background marked with darker speckles or blotches in shades of brown have protoporphyrins [19]. protoporphyrins tend to be deposited as spots, speckles, or patches of pigment incorporated within the eggshell or superficially upon it [20]. however, very few studies exist on the effects of the eggshell structure of hatching eggs on egg quality characteristics and hatching results in partridges [9, 14, 2123]. the current study was aimed at determining the comparison of hatchability and some egg quality characteristics in spotted and unspotted partridge (a. chukar) eggs.

materials and methods

all bird care was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee.

breeder flock

in total, 505 eggs were obtained from chukar partridge (a. chukar; 50 wk of age) that were raised on the research and application farm of faculty of veterinary science, selcuk university. an experiment was conducted using 51 chukar partridge (a. chukar) males and 102 females. the partridge were housed in battery cages (1 male:2 female; 45 × 40 cm) with a p operiod of 16l:8d. the partridges were fed an ad libitum diet containing 2,900 kcal of me/kg, 24% cp, and 4% ca (table 1). water was provided by automatic drinkers.

table 1.

composition of the diet

method

in the present study, 445 eggs were used for hatching characteristics and 60 eggs were used for egg quality traits, for a total of 505 eggs. the eggs were visually categorized into 2 groups: spotted and unspotted. two hundred fourteen spotted and 231 unspotted eggs were used for hatching characteristics and 30 spotted and 30 unspotted eggs were used for egg quality characteristics. the partridge eggs were collected separately on a daily basis and were cl ified as spotted or unspotted. the width and length of the eggs were measured with the aid of a digital caliper (accuracy 0.01 mm [24]) sensitive to 0.01 mm. the eggs were stored at 75% rh and 13°c for 14 d [7, 8, 25, 26]. all the eggs were numbered and weighed at the beginning and on d 21 of incubation to calculate moisture loss. egg weight loss was calculated as a percentage of set egg weight over the entire 0- to 21-d incubational period. after being weighed, the eggs were fumigated and placed into the incubator. the incubator was set at a temperature of 37.5°c and a 70% rh during the development period and 75% rh during the hatching period. at the end of the 21-d period the eggs were removed from the incubator, placed into tulle bags, and each group was placed into a separate hatching basket. the chicks that hatched from the eggs were weighed and chick weights were recorded, indicating their group and individual number. all unhatched eggs were broken out to distinguish unfertilized eggs from those containing dead embryos. both the eggs and the chicks were weighed using an electronic balance sensitive to 0.01 g (accuracy 0.01 g [27]).

for the evaluation of egg quality characteristics, 30 spotted and 30 unspotted eggs, laid on the same day, were used. all eggs were collected over a 24-h period. prior to the measurement of egg quality, the eggs were stored for 1 d at room temperature (20 ± 2°c).

eggshell color

eggshell color was measured using a minolta chroma meter cr-400 [28]. the l*, a*, and b* color measurements were determined according to the cielab color space system, where l* corresponds to dark-light chromaticity (measured on a scale of 0 to 100%, dark to light), a* to green-red chromaticity (on a scale of −60 to 60%, green to red), and b* to blue-yellow chromaticity (on a scale of −60 to 60%, blue to yellow). the instrument was calibrated with a white reference tile (l* = 97.10, a* = −4.88, b* = 7.04) before the measurements were made [29]. eggshell color was measured at the large end of the egg.

egg weight, specific gravity, shell strength, albumen height, and haugh unit

egg weight was measured using a balance and was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. specific gravity was estimated by archimedes’ method [30]. shell strength (kg) was measured with an egg force reader [31]. the height of the albumen was measured using a digimatic height gage (accuracy of 0.01 mm [24]). the haugh units were calculated from albumen height and egg weight using haugh unit = 100 log (h + 7.57 − 1.7w0.37), where h is the albumen height (mm) and w is the weight of the egg (g) [32].

ph measurement

after the eggs were broken, the albumen was separated from the yolk. the ph of the egg albumen and yolk was measured using a ph meter with a sentix sp electrode [33].

yolk color measurements

yolk color measurements were performed using a minolta chroma meter cr-400 [28]. the l*, a*, and b* color measurements were determined according to the cielab color space system. the instrument was calibrated with a white reference tile (l* = 97.10, a* = −4.88, b* = 7.04) before the measurements were made [25]. at the end of the trial, egg weight, chick weight, egg weight loss during hatching, shape index and hatching results, and some egg quality characteristics were determined in the spotted and unspotted partridge eggs.

statistical analysis

the groups of spotted and unspotted eggs were compared using a t-test. each egg was treated as a replication and the strength and amount of relationship between egg weight and chick weight were essed by means of correlation and regression analyses, respectively. statistical analyses were made using the spss 15.0 [34] software package.

results and discussion

based on the data presented in table 2, it was determined that mean egg weight, chick weight, and shape index values were similar in the groups of spotted and unspotted eggs, whereas egg weight loss during hatching differed significantly between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). in the chukar partridges, it was ascertained that the groups of spotted and unspotted eggs significantly differed from each other for hatchability of set eggs (p < 0.001), fertility (p < 0.01), hatchability of fertile eggs (p < 0.05), and embryonic mortality (p < 0.05) rates (table 3).

table 2.

mean values of egg weight, chick weight, egg weight loss during hatching, and shape index of partridge eggs

table 3.

rates of hatchability, fertility, and embryonic mortality in partridge eggs

based on the data presented in table 4, it was determined that, in the chukar partridges, statistically significant differences existed between the groups of spotted and unspotted eggs for the mean eggshell color values (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01 for l*, a*, and b*, respectively) and eggshell strength values (p < 0.01), whereas the specific gravity and haugh units were found to be similar in both groups (p = 0.328). though the mean l* (p < 0.05) and b* (p < 0.01) values of yolk color were found to be significantly lower for spotted eggs, no statistically significant difference was found between the spotted and unspotted eggs for the yolk color a* (p = 0.836), albumen ph (p = 0.792), and yolk ph values (p = 0.060; table 4). chick and egg weight were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.956; p < 0.001). the regression equation between egg and chick weight was determined by chick weight = −3.89 + 0.894 × egg weight (r2 = 91.4%; p < 0.001).

table 4.

some egg quality characteristics of partridge eggs

the egg weight values were determined to be 20.80 and 20.55 g for the spotted and unspotted eggs, respectively, in the present study, similar to the values (20.70 g) reported by cufadar et al. [35] for chukar partridges. furthermore, egg weight values previously reported for the chukar partridge (21.40 [1] and 21.50 g [36]) are higher than the egg weight values determined in the present study. the chick weight reported by cetin et al. [4], 13.74 g, for the chukar partridge is similar to the chick weight determined in this study, 13.80 g. the chick weight (14.07 g) in the spotted group in the present study is similar to the values previously reported for the rock partridge by kirikci et al. [5] (14.22 g). the shape index determined for the spotted and unspotted groups in the present study (77.79 and 78.31%, respectively) are higher than the values reported by alkan et al. [1] for the chukar partridge (74.00%) and by hashemipour et al. [14] for chukar partridges given probiotics (75.38%), and are similar to the values reported by song et al. [37] for the chukar partrdige (77.30%). in the present study, egg weight loss during hatching was 9.32 and 9.70% for the spotted and unspotted groups, respectively (p < 0.05). the mean egg weight loss of 15.48% for the eggs of the rock partridge by caglayan et al. [2] is higher than the values determined in the present study (9.32 and 9.70%). in research conducted on ross 308 broiler breeders, sekeroglu and duman [10] detected that egg weight loss during hatching was greater in eggs with light eggshell color.

the fertility rates determined in the current study are similar to those reported by cufadar et al. [35] for chukar partridge eggs (87.57%) and by cetin et al. [4] for the hatching eggs of chukar partridges raised in flocks (89.06%). the hatchability of set eggs determined for the spotted group (78.97%) was found to be similar to the values reported by cetin et al. [4] for the hatching eggs of chukar partridges raised under different mana ent conditions (81.25%). the rates of hatchability of fertile eggs determined in our study are in agreement with those indicated in previous reports (91.11–93.75% [4]; 85.44% [2]; 88.73–97.33% [8]; 80.0–90.0% [7]).

embryonic mortality rates in the spotted and unspotted groups were 10.59 and 18.89%, respectively (p < 0.05). similarly, in research conducted in light and dark colored eggs laid by hens of the barred rock 1 genotype [38], it was ascertained that the fertility rate was lower and the embryonic mortality rate was higher in light colored eggs (p < 0.05). in another study on ross 308 broiler breeders [10], it was determined that the hatchability results of dark colored eggs were better.

eggshell color values in the spotted and unspotted groups were determined as 75.93 and 78.84 (p < 0.001), 4.06 and 2.84 (p < 0.01), 18.25 and 16.41 (p < 0.01) for l*, a*, and b* respectively. aygun [39] stated that the shell l* value might be used to express whether the color of the eggshell was dark or light and could be considered as a discriminative color criterion: the more the shell l* value decreases, the more the egg shell color is darker. in the present study, it was demonstrated that the l* value was higher in the unspotted group (p < 0.001), and that a* and b* values were higher in the spotted group (p < 0.01). roberts [40] reported eggshell color as one of the factors influential on the shell quality of hen eggs.

the egg specific gravity value determined in the present study was observed to be higher than that reported for the chukar partridge by hashamipour et al. [14] (1.05). the shell strength values (2.92 and 2.93 kg) reported by castille et al. [41] for the eggs of red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa) raised in 2 different regions of spain were found to be rather high compared with the values determined in the present study. furthermore, krawczyk [15] reported the shell strength of eggs laid by free-range greenleg partridges to be 2.70 kg, which was also higher than the results obtained in the present study and indicated the correlation between shell thickness and shell strength as 0.648 (p < 0.05). in their investigation on the effect of age on egg quality characteristics in hybrid chickens, akbas et al. [42] reported the correlation between shell strength and age as −0.407 and mean shell strength as 2.96 kg, the latter being in agreement with the values determined for the spotted and unspotted groups in the present study.

the albumen height was determined as 3.87 and 4.04 mm in the spotted and unspotted groups, respectively (p = 0.328). zhang [43] reported no significant correlation between egg shell color and albumen height in brown layer eggs. in the present study, yolk color in the spotted and unspotted groups was determined as 35.46 and 35.91 (p < 0.05), 3.97 and 3.95 (p = 0.836), and 11.03 and 11.79 (p < 0.01) for l*, a*, and b*, respectively. aygun [44] reported the correlation of shell l* with yolk l* was positive (r = 0.198, p < 0.001). these results indicate that eggs lighter shells had lighter of yolk color.

yolk color was reported as 9.53 (roch score) by ahn et al. [18] for the eggs of 79-wk-old white leghorn hens and 8.00 (roch score) by hashemipour et al. [14] for the eggs of chukar partridges. furthermore, krawczyk [15] reported the yolk color of eggs laid by organically raised greenleg partridges as 8.50. values higher than those determined for the spotted and unspotted groups in the present study were reported by mourao et al. [45] for the eggs of 44-wk-old isa brown hens, and yolk color values for the group not given alfalfa were indicated as 60.306, −3.117, and 42.755 for l*, a*, and b*, respectively. furthermore, the l*, a*, b* values reported by abudabos [46] for the eggs of hy-line hens were 56.5, −0.87, and 46.5, respectively.

albumen and yolk ph values in the spotted and unspotted groups were found to be in agreement with those reported by ahn et al. [18] for the eggs of 79-wk-old white leghorn hens (9.16 and 6.27 for albumen and yolk ph, respectively). the albumen ph values reported by scott and silversides [16] and silversides and scott [17] were 7.31 to 7.43 and 7.37 to 7.43 for eggs laid by isa brown and isa white hens, respectively, lower than those determined in the present study. furthermore, roberts [40] reported that as the storage period of hen eggs increased, the albumen ph value increased.

in the present study, a high correlation (r = 0.956) and regression (r2 = 91.4%) was determined to exist between egg and chick weight (p < 0.001). these findings were observed to be in agreement with literature reports [2, 4749]. our observation indicates that the same birds might not always produce the same type of eggs, similar to the findings of krist and grim [50].

in the current study, spotted eggs had a lower egg weight loss and embryonic mortality, as well as a greater fertility, hatchability, and egg shell strength than unspotted eggs. gosler et al. [51] reported similar results and highlighted that protoporphyrin pigments (causing spots) might play role in the strengthening of eggshell, but decreasing eggshell permeability. it is reported that increases in eggshell permeability resulted in increased embryonic mortality and decreased hatchability [5254].

conclusions and applications

  1. in chukar partridges (a. chukar), spots on hatching eggs affected some internal and external egg quality characteristics and hatchability results.

  2. it may be suggested that spotted eggs are more suitable for use as hatching eggs.

  3. furthermore, spotted eggshells could be used as a selection criterion for breeder partridges.

acknowledgments


the word at the thrshold

of the appearance of the savior

author: sayyed solaiman madanie tonkabonie

translated by: alireza abedinie

babylon, cursed land

babylon in history

babylon city which rooted from sematic akkadian word” bābili(m)” means: gate of god, was the capital of ancient country of babylon. it was one of ancient civilized cities of mesopotamia of old testament (3000 bc) was built upon the euphrates’s bank. it has been always an inhabitant place for various groups and deferent civilizations and in these times, there are signs and collapse of this ancient city around 88 km of south bagdad and 5 km north of hillah.

the ancient country of babylonians, was wide land in mesopotamia (between euphrates and tigris) located upon their banks, based on geog hic and history science researchers statements.

it would contain archaic babylon city and inclosing arias which their names turn in to hillah, mosayyib, modahattiyah, mohavil, alexandria, hashimiah, koofah, karbala throughout the history and was birth land various civilizations and arch prophets namely noah and abraham.

needless to say, nebuchadnezzar ii was one of the famous greatest kings of babylon who developed his kingdom throughout the iraq to syria (levant) palestine, jerusalem and cilicia(1). in his period in 600bc famous babylon tower called by hanging gardens one of seven wonder was built which was temple of marduk( one of akkadian gods). at last, this ancient skys er was demolished by hard quake in last century before jesus christ’s arrival.

nebuchadnezzar in 597bc invaded to palestine and conquered jerusalem (al-quds), relieve jewish governor, toke his son instead, captured too many jews to babylon. then after, he invaded once again in 586bc to egypt and palestine due to jews rebel and supports from egypt whom was their allied by this time. after conquering to pharaoh, he seized jerusalem for a year, then rushed and demolished the temple of solomon, plundered their treasury, murdered lots of their people and captured once again king of judah and its more than 70000 soldiers and servants to babylon. the jews experienced decades of humiliation and captivity up to the time which cyrus the great, king of kings and their messiah set them free in 539 bc by invading toward babylon, defeating them and annexing their territory to persia, liberate captives and governed them to return back to israel and re-constructed their temple. (2)

reminding babylon in torah and koran:

in old testament, babylon referred as to evil maleficence city, prophesized its distraction. in holy quran, sura al- baqarah – ayah 102, mighty allah named babylon too as: “ and they,[ the jews ]followed what the devils recited during solomon’s kingdom,[ to effect magic for their evil purposes ] solomon did not disbelieve, but[ it was ]the devils that disbelieved, teaching men magic, and what was revealed to the two angels, harrot and marrot at babylon…”

babylon as damned demolished land:

in islamic literatures( hadith) it mentioned that the babylon were, are and will be certainly the typical place where is unholy for prayer, due to the fact that city has been demolish twice throughout centuries and will be cusped at imam asr ‘s time ultimately .

abu-salih qaffari said: doubtlessly, ali son of abu-talib (pbuh) p ed babylon since adhan reciter call him for asr prayer (3). he ordered to muezzin to recite adan, after asr prayer he mentioned: certainly my friend and lover (mohammed pbuh) prevent to pray both in babylon and cemeteries, since there are damned and be e unholy (4).

hujr son of anbas hazrami said:

we accompanied ali son of abi-talib (pbuh) to nahravan until arrived to babylon for asr adhan. we said: prayer! he mentioned nothing. we said : prayer! he mentioned nothing. when we p ed there he prayed and stated: “i never pray in land where slides 3 times by curse. (5)

jovayrah son of mosshir said: after al- khavarij’s combat , along with ali(pbuh), we returned back till we enter the land of babylon in the same time of asr prayer. amir-all-mowminin(ali pbuh) get off his ride, then people. he mentioned: “ people ! definitely, this land is the cursed which destroys three times in the history. that is one of first lands where idols have been worshiped there. it doesn’t suit for prophets or his executer to pray on such land.” (6)

the insurgencies (al-khavarij) were misguided initial muslims who fought to imam ali son of abi- talib(pbuh) versus in his caliphate at al nahravan.(somewhere between vasit and baghdad) (7)

omar quote from man(he means abu-mikhnaff) from his uncle son of mikhniff that said: perhaps it seems i gazed upon my father(mikhnaff son of solayyim)certainly(8), and he said: when he was accompanying imam ali (pbuh ) ,said:

doubtlessly, there is a land in babylon where slide by curse. hence move up your horse quickly; possibly we can pray outside on the time. so he rode his horse fast and people do so following him. when he p ed sarath bridge(9), he landed and make prayer along with his people. (10)

abu hanifah mentioned concerning imam ali and his army’s preparation for al “seffeyn” battle as:

imam ali(pbuh) exclaimed for departure among people at morning, right after sunrise, thus they went to signs of babylon, when he told to his escorts: “ certainly, this town had been annihilated by earth slides to many times. hence move your rides quickly by pulling their veins. perhaps we could p this damn land for asr adhan.” so he drove his ride fast, so as his followers up to the time which they arrived to its border when he stopped for asr prayer right on the time, took off his horse and did asr prayer. (11)

al- siffeyn was one of reputable battle took place between imam ali (pbuh) and mowaviah son of abu suffyan in all siffeyn district on euphrates’s east bank near modern syria’s border. (12)

prophecy about martyrdom of imam husain (pbuh) at babylon:

it can be concluded and resulted through islamic literatures that muhammad (pbuh) last divine prophet prophesized imam husain’s (his grandson) martyrdom after his birth. therefore, when imam husain (pbuh) wanted to leave mecca to kuffah , some of his family and his friends prevent his good self from his journey based upon mohammad’s(pbuh) statement.

ibn akir wrote in his book: amra daughter of abdurrahman wrote a letter to imam husain (pbuh) exaggerating what he was willing to do, as too dangerous. asked him to join his people, told him he goes to his murdering place by his own feet, according to hadith quoted by aisha gained from muhammad (pbuh) prophesied:

“husain (pbuh) is going to be murder at babylon land”

quoted by ibn akir : when husain read the letter he mentioned: “thus my destiny is inevitable, written from rise up to going down.” (13) then he began his journey.

quoted by imam sadiq(pbuh) that prophet mohammed described where he killed to his daughter fatima (pbuh) when he was infant cuddled by his mother;

“ there is place where called by karbala and it will be land of hardship and difficulty for us and for this group of muslim people.” (14)

decent of hardship to babylon at end of time

in tanakh book of jeremiah there is a writing of mighty lord’s scripts quoted by jeremiah that it seems that full scale war occurs in babylon land (where jeremiah lives there) and falling ostentatious its arrogant ruler in end of time;

“ escape from babylon and its two akkadian land, whereas i will rise up all great nations from north land and lands them to babylon, thus babylonian confront and embattle with them, so they are going to be in trouble…” “ so there is no sanctuary from lord’s rage that will never halt, but babylon will be demolished entirely.”

therefore jehovah sabayot (heavenly army) adonai(god) of israel say: “ now, we fall down babylon by its vengeances” …”there is war song will play and leads to great defeat…” “babylon, i had prepared t that you just have involved without any notice” …”lord open his arsenal ,drawing his anger weapon out”…”gather archers versus babylon. people, who pull bows armed with arrows, surround them until no one can escape”…” lord says their youths will be dropped in alleys, whole warriors will kill that day.” …” that arrogant roams, will fall and no one can rise him up. i will descend fire upon the cities to burn city and all neighbors”… lord says” there is sward against akkdian and babylon inhabitants and its overlords and wise elders …” “there is sward toward their treasury which will be taken spoils accordingly” (15)

needless to say that jehovah sabayot means “god of armies’ commander” in holy scripts and based on experts statements, in jeremiah’s book, great nations of north land is metaphor of northern hemisphere inhabitants ( american and european people) that invaded to iraq by leadership of george walker bush. so falling ostentatious arrogant ruler exposed as saddam who had most ostentation among world’s leaders.

furthermore, great nations of north land can be revealed as same “khazars” and caucasus deployed army by leadership of “sharrouosi” . guarded by support of usa, europe and turkey intrude toward iran in arrival’s year, and then drifted across iraq, invading mesopotamia. therefore, based on this insight, falling ostentatious arrogant ruler will be “as^hab al-marwani”.

it is given from islamic literatures that definitely cities and countries of babylon, later than brightness of eastern comet, will involve great miseries. it is well enough to run through literatures which have “babylon” term has been applied exactly.

certainly, shining of luminous comet named and prophesized in islamic literatures as “hair of an” leads people to feel miserable is one of imam mahdi (pbuh) arrival’s signs. that unknown comet will appear suddenly from east in sky at safar month of arrival’s year, rotates between earth and sun on solar orbit, t ped into earth’s gravity in ramadan’s month of same year, gently enters to atmosphere. then it sounds as m ive storm rumbling. it burns in golden yellow color flame, due to iron element containment. that comet will glow for 3 to 7 days; make sky red leads to m ive meteor shower that lots of meteor impact earth. therefore it becomes enormous meteoroid fall to earth on friday morning of 15 ramadan, same time of sunrise in mecca, brings sky about dark, frightening people. so be aware it is sign for hardship. (16)

imam ali son of abi-talib(pbuh) in line with illustration of arrival’s signs mentioned:

“… fall hardship down to babylon …”(17)

imam ali (pbuh) also mentioned:

“hardship occurs in babylon. then after, lots of creatures destroy and earth swallows people by earth slides.” (18)

jobayrah son of mos^hir abdi (19)quoted that imam ali (pbuh) mentioned:

i was with my overlord, ali (pbuh) in nahravan battle, once we finish fighting, we[and him] (20) land on babylon, while sun was forthcoming to be set , he didn’t pray. i said: my overlord, why you don’t make asr prayer? he mentioned: “ jobayrah! this soil are coursed twice in foretime, looking forward for third time. so, we p ed there to sunset. i saw my overlord said something in arabic or syrian, made sun return (miracle) to place it was there! so he said: recite the adan! i did and we make prayer. when we finished our prayers, cluster stars appeared again. i said: my lord, you mentioned two time [of damn], when third time does happen?. he said: jobayrah! when bridge would construct in babylon and the comet (21) would shine from east, then armies spoil on that bridge.” (22)

certainly, returning sun back from its set, was one of incident beyond human’s power and it was a miracle occurred by command of mighty allah for prophets and their divine executers namely imam ali(pbuh).

abu-jaroud said i heard from jobayrah:

“ali( pbuh) toke ourselves across karbala toward euphrates, when arrived babylon, he told me: “jobayrah! what does this place call? said: my lord, here is the babylon! so he added: beware! it isn’t convenient for any prophet or his lawful executers to do prayer in such damn soil where cursed twice the time! i said: my lord, right now it becomes mandatory for us (vajib) to make asr prayer on evening doubtlessly. he said: i advised you it isn’t convenient for any prophet or his lawful executers to do prayer in such damn soil where cursed twice the time, looking forward for third time! thus, once the comet (23)would appear and the babylon bridge would fabricate, hundred thousands of people m acre on that bridge(24), in as much as (25)their horses are plunged into blood(26) within their hoofs! (27) (28)

with regards to the fact that hillah city, centre of babil providence, located is closed by ancient babylon, between baghdad, najaf and karbal a(two sacred cities) and euphrates p ed among the city, therefore roads and bridges of hilla will have strategic role in accordance with apocalyptic transcripts . hence, as result, purpose of imam ali (pbuh) by saying babylon bridge would be one of the new brand bridges in hilla supposed to be constructed in future.

i should stress that after shining eastern comet in ramadan of arrival’s year, turk and khazars armies commanding by “sharrussi” invading toward iran come across the iraq. after conquering basra , vasidh and baghdad, on shawwal of same year, they goes to kuffa. then, on one of hilla bridge, m ive battle takes place between khazars/ turks and “shaysabani” leads thousands of them to be m acred. by the time this battle happen, “suffyani”’s military forces are coming from damascus, fight with both groups, defeat and destroy them.

“sufyani “’s uprising to babylon

as i mentioned previously, “sufyani the levantian”’s forces appears in arrival’s year, heading toward iraq among damascus, conquers strategic points namely babylon, baghdad and basra. they takes enormous captives from iraq, plunder and and slighter them to death and complete ruin.

rabwi son of hirash said i’m hearing from hadhayfah ibn al-yaman quoted:

mohammad messenger of allah (pbuh) reminds typical fitna occurs among easterns and westerns and he mentioned: “while they are in conflict, suddenly sufyani rise up against them(westerns and easterns) from the dry valley (hauran desert) until he land on damascus. so he conveys two armies: one of them toward east, and one of them in direction of medina, until they arrived to cursed babylon. hence, they slighter more than three thousands, rips [stomach of(29)] three hundred women, kills three hundred of bani-abbas elders, then intrudes toward kuffa and its suburban areas till destroy everything there. afterward, they head toward levant. therefore, a guiding banner appears from kuffa arrived to their army within two nights. (30) they m acre sufyani’s iraq army in order to free their captives and plundered properties. (31)

based on islamic literatures regarding apocalypse events, othman son of ansabah “ the sufyani” after dominating levant’s land, convey m ive army to iraq who conquered basra, baghdad and archaic babylon, afterward he deploys his troops among iraqi army to istakhr(shiraz) , zaranj(sistan) , rey(tehran) and khorasan.

it seems that purpose of cursed city in this hadith referred as to bagdad, however baghdad was not part of ancient land babylon , but it included babylon civilization and governing territory. being three hundred of bani-abbas’s victim among this hadith, can’t take place due to the fact that bani-abbas structured on old baghdad on their first caliphates, so possibly this neglectable errors occurred during transcription.

quoted from jabir jowfi that abi-jafar (imam baqir pbuh) (32) mentioned:

“ sufyani wide their troops among the lands after invading baghdad and kuffa. afterward mesopotamia incident, frighten(33) by khorasanian rushing to his domain. hence easterns fight them to perish(34), destroying his army. by the time he hears his surrender, he conveys a large army in direction of istakhr(shiraz) by one of bani-omayyah’s leadership. so there will be champagnes on qoumis(36), battle on dullab-rey(tehran) (37) and zaranj(sistan) (38). so “sufyani” orders to m acre inhabitant of kuffa and medina. then black erected flags heading to rey and madwen, commanding by bani-hashim youth signed by nevus on his right palm of hand, allah makes his revolution and its path comforted and destined. so he involves battle nearby khorasan’s border. then consequencive on rey (39) battle there is another battle in madawen(40), and in aqiraqoufa (41) there is a destructive full scale war reported by any survival. after that, there is m ive ripping the head off on babylon. there would be war on land of n ibayn. (42) hence group raises up from prolific green iraq against “akhvas”(man with sunken eyes). so raises up, and they are supreme capable army, mostly from kuffa and basra, until they liberate kuffa captives and plundered property. (43)

be advised that akhvas(man with sunken eyes) is adjective of evil “sufyani” king of lavent, certainly.

definitely, ripping the head off babylonians and m - destruction tragedy will be happen by “sufyani” ‘s army.

in some of zoroastrian’s transcripts, it’s been reported arrival of red flag army who annexed babylon and persian lands to their territory who caused humiliation for arabs that i ume them as “sufyani” troops.

“a group arrived with red banner, conquers pars and eranshahr(44) to babylon, leads humiliation(45) to arabs.”

uprising of khorasani’s army to babylon

based upon prophecy by imam ali (pbuh), right after conjunction of mars and urn, before imam mahdi’s arrivals earth quakes occur consecutively and “hashimi khorasani”’s army which is under commandership of showayb son of salih, with erected small black flags are coming from samarkand to iraq, destructs strategic spot like basra, baghdad and babylon and provide preparation for imam mahdi’s appearance.

imam ali (pbuh) in mentioning apocalypses incidents said:

beware, after a while, you will find out wonders that you realize from some of my quotations and predictions illustrated by detailed logic namely when conjunction of mars and urn(47) takes place. during this time, serial quakes trembles land after land. from amu darya’s bank, there are flags appeared headed toward babylon desert. (48)

amu darya is one of most watery major rivers of central asia sourced by pamir and hindu kush mountains, formed by the junction of two tributaries vakhsh and panj rivers. in ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between greater iran and turan. nowadays, amu darya river consider as parts of afghanistan and tajikistan natural boundary by sourced from afghanistan’s mountains, p es through east turkmenistan set to be as part of natural border of uzbekistan and turkmenistan, flows into the aral sea. (49)

the purpose of “amu darya’s bank” is land located in north of amu darya called by transoxiana contains most of ancient khorasan and samarkand , city of “hashimi khorasani” and “shwayb ibn salih tamimi” is placed there.

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1- in antiquity, cilicia was the south coastal region of asia minor, south of the central anatolian plateau. it existed as a political entity from hittite times into the byzantine empire. cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of modern turkey, due north and northeast of the island of cyprus.(general sources)

2- (gained from general various resources)

3- what are between two brackets is my amendment

4- tafsir al-quran al-azim تفسیر القرآن العظیم – volume i - page 180

5- history of baghdad – volume 8 – page 269

6- bihar o’ al- anwar بحار الأنوار - volume 33- page 467 with quoting of: tawwil e’ al-ayat o’ al-bahirah” تأویل الآیات الباهرة

7- (gained from general various resources)

8- reliable “siffayn” incident has been amended in accordance with arabic print texted edition. here, in arabic text «إنّی لأنظر» has been translated to «کأنّی أنظر»

9- “sarath” صَرات river is the same river of “nahr e al issa” [jesus river] sourced and formed in a land called “mohawwal” مُحَوَّل in 1 parasang distance of baghdad (mawjam o al baladan, vol 3 madkhal”al- serah”

10- “waghaw a al siffeyn” vol 1 page 135 وقعة صفّین

11- “al-akhbar o al teval" الأخبار الطوال

12- (gained from general various resources)

13- history of damascus city تاریخ مدینة دمشق in persian vol 14 page 209

14- “tafsir e al forat e al kufi” تفسیر فرات الکوفیّpage 171 hadith# 219

15- old testement torah pages 1178-80 book of jeremiah tanakh sec50#8-37

16- (gained from general various resources)

17- “ilzam o n’ nasib” إ ام الناصب vol 2 page 184 lecture# 2

18- “ilzam o n’ nasib” إ ام الناصب vol 2 page 184 lecture# 1

19- in arabic print texted edition “tashriif be al manan” شریف بالمنن

20- what are between two brackets is my addition

21- what are between two brackets is my addition

22- “tashriif o be al- minan” شریف بالمنن page 367 enc.:538

23- what are between two brackets is my addition

24- «قتلوا» turn into قتل “murders (v) turn into murder(v) print text arabic “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار

25- what are between two brackets is my addition

26- what are between two brackets is my addition

27- « تخوضه » turn into تخوض “print text arabic “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار

28- “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار vol 41 pages 178-179 sec#109 hadith#14 with quotation of al-basayer o al darajat” بصائر الدرجات

29- what are between two brackets is my addition

30- distances of two nights by essment can be figure out nearly 80 km.

31- “jame o al bayan” جامع البیان vol 19 page 310 hadith#29131

32- what are between two brackets is my addition

33- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out فرعه shoud be changed into فزعة equal to what has been in العرف الوردیّ print text book .

34- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out نجیهم is more compatible with بجیشهم egyptian version print text book

35- estakhr was an ancient city located in southern iran, in fars province, 5 kilometers north of persepolis and 60 km eastern north of shiraz. after 4th century shiraz exceed estakhr as development and this town gently be e abundant and collapsed through history. it was a prosperous city during the time of achaemenid persia. today, there is sign of collapse on “mravdasht” in fars province.

36- qumis is arabic turn of kumish persian word for wide land under alborz mountains, from “rey” to “neyshabour” , damghan and semnan were most repretable cities of qumis

37- in all print text books, i surveyed them all. here i used and translated ب اب instead ب ات, due to compatibility. “doulab” was a village at eastern north of “rey” in old time and now, it is part of metropolitan tehran in south east.( gained from general various resources)

38- “zaranj” is the arabic form of “zarang” persian word, was capital city of sistan in ancient time that today there is sign of collaps around “hamoun” lake . cerently, there is “zaranj” city in afghanistan that is center city of “nimrouz” province , that is adjacent of iran’ border , in east of zabol in “sistan & baluchistan” province of iran. (gained from general various resources)

39- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out وقعتی shoud be changed into وقعةdue to compatibility equal to what has been in العرف الوردیّ print text book .

40- “madawen” was name of ancient city located in tigris bank, distances in 32 km of baghdad in direction of south east. (gained from general various resources)

41- “aqiraqoufa” was village of old baghdad and now distances in 30 km of baghdad center in direction of north west. there is ancient hill full of antique signees subsoil. (gained from general various resources)

42- “n ibayn” is old town located in mardin province in tureky and “jazirah” in old levant. it is adjacent to “qamishli” in syria very close to “n ibayn”,has nothing between but border. in these two cities, one of khabur river tributary p es. (gained from general various resources)

43- “al-fotan” الفتن pages 218-219, sec#4, hadith#869

44- “shahr” in persian means populated prosperous land and country and “eranshahr” means country of iran.

45- miserable , incapable, wretched

46- “messiah in religions” page 55 chapter 1, with quotation of “bondahish” page 186.

47- it is fit to be mentioned that there is one conjunction occurs between mars and urn in each two year. as old astrologist point of view, precise conjunction means when two planet gathered in one ecliptic constellation with one minute and degree. as per contemporary agronomists’ point of view, precise conjunction occurs when distance of two planets would be less than 5 degree angle.

48- “mashariq o al-anwar o al-yaqin” مشارق أنوار الیقین page 266, “tatanhiyah” تَطَنْجِیَّه lecture

49- (gained from general various resources)


the word at the thrshold

of the appearance of the savior

author: sayyed solaiman madanie tonkabonie

translated by: alireza abedinie

babylon, cursed land

babylon in history

babylon city which rooted from sematic akkadian word” bābili(m)” means: gate of god, was the capital of ancient country of babylon. it was one of ancient civilized cities of mesopotamia of old testament (3000 bc) was built upon the euphrates’s bank. it has been always an inhabitant place for various groups and deferent civilizations and in these times, there are signs and collapse of this ancient city around 88 km of south bagdad and 5 km north of hillah.

the ancient country of babylonians, was wide land in mesopotamia (between euphrates and tigris) located upon their banks, based on geog hic and history science researchers statements.

it would contain archaic babylon city and inclosing arias which their names turn in to hillah, mosayyib, modahattiyah, mohavil, alexandria, hashimiah, koofah, karbala throughout the history and was birth land various civilizations and arch prophets namely noah and abraham.

needless to say, nebuchadnezzar ii was one of the famous greatest kings of babylon who developed his kingdom throughout the iraq to syria (levant) palestine, jerusalem and cilicia(1). in his period in 600bc famous babylon tower called by hanging gardens one of seven wonder was built which was temple of marduk( one of akkadian gods). at last, this ancient skys er was demolished by hard quake in last century before jesus christ’s arrival.

nebuchadnezzar in 597bc invaded to palestine and conquered jerusalem (al-quds), relieve jewish governor, toke his son instead, captured too many jews to babylon. then after, he invaded once again in 586bc to egypt and palestine due to jews rebel and supports from egypt whom was their allied by this time. after conquering to pharaoh, he seized jerusalem for a year, then rushed and demolished the temple of solomon, plundered their treasury, murdered lots of their people and captured once again king of judah and its more than 70000 soldiers and servants to babylon. the jews experienced decades of humiliation and captivity up to the time which cyrus the great, king of kings and their messiah set them free in 539 bc by invading toward babylon, defeating them and annexing their territory to persia, liberate captives and governed them to return back to israel and re-constructed their temple. (2)

reminding babylon in torah and koran:

in old testament, babylon referred as to evil maleficence city, prophesized its distraction. in holy quran, sura al- baqarah – ayah 102, mighty allah named babylon too as: “ and they,[ the jews ]followed what the devils recited during solomon’s kingdom,[ to effect magic for their evil purposes ] solomon did not disbelieve, but[ it was ]the devils that disbelieved, teaching men magic, and what was revealed to the two angels, harrot and marrot at babylon…”

babylon as damned demolished land:

in islamic literatures( hadith) it mentioned that the babylon were, are and will be certainly the typical place where is unholy for prayer, due to the fact that city has been demolish twice throughout centuries and will be cusped at imam asr ‘s time ultimately .

abu-salih qaffari said: doubtlessly, ali son of abu-talib (pbuh) p ed babylon since adhan reciter call him for asr prayer (3). he ordered to muezzin to recite adan, after asr prayer he mentioned: certainly my friend and lover (mohammed pbuh) prevent to pray both in babylon and cemeteries, since there are damned and be e unholy (4).

hujr son of anbas hazrami said:

we accompanied ali son of abi-talib (pbuh) to nahravan until arrived to babylon for asr adhan. we said: prayer! he mentioned nothing. we said : prayer! he mentioned nothing. when we p ed there he prayed and stated: “i never pray in land where slides 3 times by curse. (5)

jovayrah son of mosshir said: after al- khavarij’s combat , along with ali(pbuh), we returned back till we enter the land of babylon in the same time of asr prayer. amir-all-mowminin(ali pbuh) get off his ride, then people. he mentioned: “ people ! definitely, this land is the cursed which destroys three times in the history. that is one of first lands where idols have been worshiped there. it doesn’t suit for prophets or his executer to pray on such land.” (6)

the insurgencies (al-khavarij) were misguided initial muslims who fought to imam ali son of abi- talib(pbuh) versus in his caliphate at al nahravan.(somewhere between vasit and baghdad) (7)

omar quote from man(he means abu-mikhnaff) from his uncle son of mikhniff that said: perhaps it seems i gazed upon my father(mikhnaff son of solayyim)certainly(8), and he said: when he was accompanying imam ali (pbuh ) ,said:

doubtlessly, there is a land in babylon where slide by curse. hence move up your horse quickly; possibly we can pray outside on the time. so he rode his horse fast and people do so following him. when he p ed sarath bridge(9), he landed and make prayer along with his people. (10)

abu hanifah mentioned concerning imam ali and his army’s preparation for al “seffeyn” battle as:

imam ali(pbuh) exclaimed for departure among people at morning, right after sunrise, thus they went to signs of babylon, when he told to his escorts: “ certainly, this town had been annihilated by earth slides to many times. hence move your rides quickly by pulling their veins. perhaps we could p this damn land for asr adhan.” so he drove his ride fast, so as his followers up to the time which they arrived to its border when he stopped for asr prayer right on the time, took off his horse and did asr prayer. (11)

al- siffeyn was one of reputable battle took place between imam ali (pbuh) and mowaviah son of abu suffyan in all siffeyn district on euphrates’s east bank near modern syria’s border. (12)

prophecy about martyrdom of imam husain (pbuh) at babylon:

it can be concluded and resulted through islamic literatures that muhammad (pbuh) last divine prophet prophesized imam husain’s (his grandson) martyrdom after his birth. therefore, when imam husain (pbuh) wanted to leave mecca to kuffah , some of his family and his friends prevent his good self from his journey based upon mohammad’s(pbuh) statement.

ibn akir wrote in his book: amra daughter of abdurrahman wrote a letter to imam husain (pbuh) exaggerating what he was willing to do, as too dangerous. asked him to join his people, told him he goes to his murdering place by his own feet, according to hadith quoted by aisha gained from muhammad (pbuh) prophesied:

“husain (pbuh) is going to be murder at babylon land”

quoted by ibn akir : when husain read the letter he mentioned: “thus my destiny is inevitable, written from rise up to going down.” (13) then he began his journey.

quoted by imam sadiq(pbuh) that prophet mohammed described where he killed to his daughter fatima (pbuh) when he was infant cuddled by his mother;

“ there is place where called by karbala and it will be land of hardship and difficulty for us and for this group of muslim people.” (14)

decent of hardship to babylon at end of time

in tanakh book of jeremiah there is a writing of mighty lord’s scripts quoted by jeremiah that it seems that full scale war occurs in babylon land (where jeremiah lives there) and falling ostentatious its arrogant ruler in end of time;

“ escape from babylon and its two akkadian land, whereas i will rise up all great nations from north land and lands them to babylon, thus babylonian confront and embattle with them, so they are going to be in trouble…” “ so there is no sanctuary from lord’s rage that will never halt, but babylon will be demolished entirely.”

therefore jehovah sabayot (heavenly army) adonai(god) of israel say: “ now, we fall down babylon by its vengeances” …”there is war song will play and leads to great defeat…” “babylon, i had prepared t that you just have involved without any notice” …”lord open his arsenal ,drawing his anger weapon out”…”gather archers versus babylon. people, who pull bows armed with arrows, surround them until no one can escape”…” lord says their youths will be dropped in alleys, whole warriors will kill that day.” …” that arrogant roams, will fall and no one can rise him up. i will descend fire upon the cities to burn city and all neighbors”… lord says” there is sward against akkdian and babylon inhabitants and its overlords and wise elders …” “there is sward toward their treasury which will be taken spoils accordingly” (15)

needless to say that jehovah sabayot means “god of armies’ commander” in holy scripts and based on experts statements, in jeremiah’s book, great nations of north land is metaphor of northern hemisphere inhabitants ( american and european people) that invaded to iraq by leadership of george walker bush. so falling ostentatious arrogant ruler exposed as saddam who had most ostentation among world’s leaders.

furthermore, great nations of north land can be revealed as same “khazars” and caucasus deployed army by leadership of “sharrouosi” . guarded by support of usa, europe and turkey intrude toward iran in arrival’s year, and then drifted across iraq, invading mesopotamia. therefore, based on this insight, falling ostentatious arrogant ruler will be “as^hab al-marwani”.

it is given from islamic literatures that definitely cities and countries of babylon, later than brightness of eastern comet, will involve great miseries. it is well enough to run through literatures which have “babylon” term has been applied exactly.

certainly, shining of luminous comet named and prophesized in islamic literatures as “hair of an” leads people to feel miserable is one of imam mahdi (pbuh) arrival’s signs. that unknown comet will appear suddenly from east in sky at safar month of arrival’s year, rotates between earth and sun on solar orbit, t ped into earth’s gravity in ramadan’s month of same year, gently enters to atmosphere. then it sounds as m ive storm rumbling. it burns in golden yellow color flame, due to iron element containment. that comet will glow for 3 to 7 days; make sky red leads to m ive meteor shower that lots of meteor impact earth. therefore it becomes enormous meteoroid fall to earth on friday morning of 15 ramadan, same time of sunrise in mecca, brings sky about dark, frightening people. so be aware it is sign for hardship. (16)

imam ali son of abi-talib(pbuh) in line with illustration of arrival’s signs mentioned:

“… fall hardship down to babylon …”(17)

imam ali (pbuh) also mentioned:

“hardship occurs in babylon. then after, lots of creatures destroy and earth swallows people by earth slides.” (18)

jobayrah son of mos^hir abdi (19)quoted that imam ali (pbuh) mentioned:

i was with my overlord, ali (pbuh) in nahravan battle, once we finish fighting, we[and him] (20) land on babylon, while sun was forthcoming to be set , he didn’t pray. i said: my overlord, why you don’t make asr prayer? he mentioned: “ jobayrah! this soil are coursed twice in foretime, looking forward for third time. so, we p ed there to sunset. i saw my overlord said something in arabic or syrian, made sun return (miracle) to place it was there! so he said: recite the adan! i did and we make prayer. when we finished our prayers, cluster stars appeared again. i said: my lord, you mentioned two time [of damn], when third time does happen?. he said: jobayrah! when bridge would construct in babylon and the comet (21) would shine from east, then armies spoil on that bridge.” (22)

certainly, returning sun back from its set, was one of incident beyond human’s power and it was a miracle occurred by command of mighty allah for prophets and their divine executers namely imam ali(pbuh).

abu-jaroud said i heard from jobayrah:

“ali( pbuh) toke ourselves across karbala toward euphrates, when arrived babylon, he told me: “jobayrah! what does this place call? said: my lord, here is the babylon! so he added: beware! it isn’t convenient for any prophet or his lawful executers to do prayer in such damn soil where cursed twice the time! i said: my lord, right now it becomes mandatory for us (vajib) to make asr prayer on evening doubtlessly. he said: i advised you it isn’t convenient for any prophet or his lawful executers to do prayer in such damn soil where cursed twice the time, looking forward for third time! thus, once the comet (23)would appear and the babylon bridge would fabricate, hundred thousands of people m acre on that bridge(24), in as much as (25)their horses are plunged into blood(26) within their hoofs! (27) (28)

with regards to the fact that hillah city, centre of babil providence, located is closed by ancient babylon, between baghdad, najaf and karbal a(two sacred cities) and euphrates p ed among the city, therefore roads and bridges of hilla will have strategic role in accordance with apocalyptic transcripts . hence, as result, purpose of imam ali (pbuh) by saying babylon bridge would be one of the new brand bridges in hilla supposed to be constructed in future.

i should stress that after shining eastern comet in ramadan of arrival’s year, turk and khazars armies commanding by “sharrussi” invading toward iran come across the iraq. after conquering basra , vasidh and baghdad, on shawwal of same year, they goes to kuffa. then, on one of hilla bridge, m ive battle takes place between khazars/ turks and “shaysabani” leads thousands of them to be m acred. by the time this battle happen, “suffyani”’s military forces are coming from damascus, fight with both groups, defeat and destroy them.

“sufyani “’s uprising to babylon

as i mentioned previously, “sufyani the levantian”’s forces appears in arrival’s year, heading toward iraq among damascus, conquers strategic points namely babylon, baghdad and basra. they takes enormous captives from iraq, plunder and and slighter them to death and complete ruin.

rabwi son of hirash said i’m hearing from hadhayfah ibn al-yaman quoted:

mohammad messenger of allah (pbuh) reminds typical fitna occurs among easterns and westerns and he mentioned: “while they are in conflict, suddenly sufyani rise up against them(westerns and easterns) from the dry valley (hauran desert) until he land on damascus. so he conveys two armies: one of them toward east, and one of them in direction of medina, until they arrived to cursed babylon. hence, they slighter more than three thousands, rips [stomach of(29)] three hundred women, kills three hundred of bani-abbas elders, then intrudes toward kuffa and its suburban areas till destroy everything there. afterward, they head toward levant. therefore, a guiding banner appears from kuffa arrived to their army within two nights. (30) they m acre sufyani’s iraq army in order to free their captives and plundered properties. (31)

based on islamic literatures regarding apocalypse events, othman son of ansabah “ the sufyani” after dominating levant’s land, convey m ive army to iraq who conquered basra, baghdad and archaic babylon, afterward he deploys his troops among iraqi army to istakhr(shiraz) , zaranj(sistan) , rey(tehran) and khorasan.

it seems that purpose of cursed city in this hadith referred as to bagdad, however baghdad was not part of ancient land babylon , but it included babylon civilization and governing territory. being three hundred of bani-abbas’s victim among this hadith, can’t take place due to the fact that bani-abbas structured on old baghdad on their first caliphates, so possibly this neglectable errors occurred during transcription.

quoted from jabir jowfi that abi-jafar (imam baqir pbuh) (32) mentioned:

“ sufyani wide their troops among the lands after invading baghdad and kuffa. afterward mesopotamia incident, frighten(33) by khorasanian rushing to his domain. hence easterns fight them to perish(34), destroying his army. by the time he hears his surrender, he conveys a large army in direction of istakhr(shiraz) by one of bani-omayyah’s leadership. so there will be champagnes on qoumis(36), battle on dullab-rey(tehran) (37) and zaranj(sistan) (38). so “sufyani” orders to m acre inhabitant of kuffa and medina. then black erected flags heading to rey and madwen, commanding by bani-hashim youth signed by nevus on his right palm of hand, allah makes his revolution and its path comforted and destined. so he involves battle nearby khorasan’s border. then consequencive on rey (39) battle there is another battle in madawen(40), and in aqiraqoufa (41) there is a destructive full scale war reported by any survival. after that, there is m ive ripping the head off on babylon. there would be war on land of n ibayn. (42) hence group raises up from prolific green iraq against “akhvas”(man with sunken eyes). so raises up, and they are supreme capable army, mostly from kuffa and basra, until they liberate kuffa captives and plundered property. (43)

be advised that akhvas(man with sunken eyes) is adjective of evil “sufyani” king of lavent, certainly.

definitely, ripping the head off babylonians and m - destruction tragedy will be happen by “sufyani” ‘s army.

in some of zoroastrian’s transcripts, it’s been reported arrival of red flag army who annexed babylon and persian lands to their territory who caused humiliation for arabs that i ume them as “sufyani” troops.

“a group arrived with red banner, conquers pars and eranshahr(44) to babylon, leads humiliation(45) to arabs.”

uprising of khorasani’s army to babylon

based upon prophecy by imam ali (pbuh), right after conjunction of mars and urn, before imam mahdi’s arrivals earth quakes occur consecutively and “hashimi khorasani”’s army which is under commandership of showayb son of salih, with erected small black flags are coming from samarkand to iraq, destructs strategic spot like basra, baghdad and babylon and provide preparation for imam mahdi’s appearance.

imam ali (pbuh) in mentioning apocalypses incidents said:

beware, after a while, you will find out wonders that you realize from some of my quotations and predictions illustrated by detailed logic namely when conjunction of mars and urn(47) takes place. during this time, serial quakes trembles land after land. from amu darya’s bank, there are flags appeared headed toward babylon desert. (48)

amu darya is one of most watery major rivers of central asia sourced by pamir and hindu kush mountains, formed by the junction of two tributaries vakhsh and panj rivers. in ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between greater iran and turan. nowadays, amu darya river consider as parts of afghanistan and tajikistan natural boundary by sourced from afghanistan’s mountains, p es through east turkmenistan set to be as part of natural border of uzbekistan and turkmenistan, flows into the aral sea. (49)

the purpose of “amu darya’s bank” is land located in north of amu darya called by transoxiana contains most of ancient khorasan and samarkand , city of “hashimi khorasani” and “shwayb ibn salih tamimi” is placed there.

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1- in antiquity, cilicia was the south coastal region of asia minor, south of the central anatolian plateau. it existed as a political entity from hittite times into the byzantine empire. cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of modern turkey, due north and northeast of the island of cyprus.(general sources)

2- (gained from general various resources)

3- what are between two brackets is my amendment

4- tafsir al-quran al-azim تفسیر القرآن العظیم – volume i - page 180

5- history of baghdad – volume 8 – page 269

6- bihar o’ al- anwar بحار الأنوار - volume 33- page 467 with quoting of: tawwil e’ al-ayat o’ al-bahirah” تأویل الآیات الباهرة

7- (gained from general various resources)

8- reliable “siffayn” incident has been amended in accordance with arabic print texted edition. here, in arabic text «إنّی لأنظر» has been translated to «کأنّی أنظر»

9- “sarath” صَرات river is the same river of “nahr e al issa” [jesus river] sourced and formed in a land called “mohawwal” مُحَوَّل in 1 parasang distance of baghdad (mawjam o al baladan, vol 3 madkhal”al- serah”

10- “waghaw a al siffeyn” vol 1 page 135 وقعة صفّین

11- “al-akhbar o al teval" الأخبار الطوال

12- (gained from general various resources)

13- history of damascus city تاریخ مدینة دمشق in persian vol 14 page 209

14- “tafsir e al forat e al kufi” تفسیر فرات الکوفیّpage 171 hadith# 219

15- old testement torah pages 1178-80 book of jeremiah tanakh sec50#8-37

16- (gained from general various resources)

17- “ilzam o n’ nasib” إ ام الناصب vol 2 page 184 lecture# 2

18- “ilzam o n’ nasib” إ ام الناصب vol 2 page 184 lecture# 1

19- in arabic print texted edition “tashriif be al manan” شریف بالمنن

20- what are between two brackets is my addition

21- what are between two brackets is my addition

22- “tashriif o be al- minan” شریف بالمنن page 367 enc.:538

23- what are between two brackets is my addition

24- «قتلوا» turn into قتل “murders (v) turn into murder(v) print text arabic “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار

25- what are between two brackets is my addition

26- what are between two brackets is my addition

27- « تخوضه » turn into تخوض “print text arabic “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار

28- “bihar o al-anwar” بحار الأنوار vol 41 pages 178-179 sec#109 hadith#14 with quotation of al-basayer o al darajat” بصائر الدرجات

29- what are between two brackets is my addition

30- distances of two nights by essment can be figure out nearly 80 km.

31- “jame o al bayan” جامع البیان vol 19 page 310 hadith#29131

32- what are between two brackets is my addition

33- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out فرعه shoud be changed into فزعة equal to what has been in العرف الوردیّ print text book .

34- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out نجیهم is more compatible with بجیشهم egyptian version print text book

35- estakhr was an ancient city located in southern iran, in fars province, 5 kilometers north of persepolis and 60 km eastern north of shiraz. after 4th century shiraz exceed estakhr as development and this town gently be e abundant and collapsed through history. it was a prosperous city during the time of achaemenid persia. today, there is sign of collapse on “mravdasht” in fars province.

36- qumis is arabic turn of kumish persian word for wide land under alborz mountains, from “rey” to “neyshabour” , damghan and semnan were most repretable cities of qumis

37- in all print text books, i surveyed them all. here i used and translated ب اب instead ب ات, due to compatibility. “doulab” was a village at eastern north of “rey” in old time and now, it is part of metropolitan tehran in south east.( gained from general various resources)

38- “zaranj” is the arabic form of “zarang” persian word, was capital city of sistan in ancient time that today there is sign of collaps around “hamoun” lake . cerently, there is “zaranj” city in afghanistan that is center city of “nimrouz” province , that is adjacent of iran’ border , in east of zabol in “sistan & baluchistan” province of iran. (gained from general various resources)

39- i checked all versions of print text book of “al- fotan” الفتن found out وقعتی shoud be changed into وقعةdue to compatibility equal to what has been in العرف الوردیّ print text book .

40- “madawen” was name of ancient city located in tigris bank, distances in 32 km of baghdad in direction of south east. (gained from general various resources)

41- “aqiraqoufa” was village of old baghdad and now distances in 30 km of baghdad center in direction of north west. there is ancient hill full of antique signees subsoil. (gained from general various resources)

42- “n ibayn” is old town located in mardin province in tureky and “jazirah” in old levant. it is adjacent to “qamishli” in syria very close to “n ibayn”,has nothing between but border. in these two cities, one of khabur river tributary p es. (gained from general various resources)

43- “al-fotan” الفتن pages 218-219, sec#4, hadith#869

44- “shahr” in persian means populated prosperous land and country and “eranshahr” means country of iran.

45- miserable , incapable, wretched

46- “messiah in religions” page 55 chapter 1, with quotation of “bondahish” page 186.

47- it is fit to be mentioned that there is one conjunction occurs between mars and urn in each two year. as old astrologist point of view, precise conjunction means when two planet gathered in one ecliptic constellation with one minute and degree. as per contemporary agronomists’ point of view, precise conjunction occurs when distance of two planets would be less than 5 degree angle.

48- “mashariq o al-anwar o al-yaqin” مشارق أنوار الیقین page 266, “tatanhiyah” تَطَنْجِیَّه lecture

49- (gained from general various resources)


رتبه های برتر کلاس سوم تجربی

رتبه ی اول : احسان کریمی

رتبه ی دوم: ایمان زاده محمد

رتبه ی سوم: علیرضا احمدی آزاد

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رتبه های برتر کلاس سوم ریاضی

رتبه ی اول : ارسلان منصورزاده

رتبه ی دوم: ایمان راشدی

رتبه ی سوم: مهدی سلطانی

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ادامه مطلب

different buildings have differing needs for aesthetics, performance, and functional operations. few building materials have as great an impact on all three of these areas as gl since it plays a unique and important role in building design and the environment. the use of gl in buildings affects design, appearance, thermal performance, and occupant comfort. historically, gl was used mainly for windows to admit air and light, but with a nced manufacturing options and the need for high-performance buildings, it is now integral to interior and exterior architecture. from facades, skylights and walkways to revolving doors and gl box extensions, gl is being used to do much more than just let light in. therefore the selection of the right types of gl is a crucial element of the design process to create solutions that address thermal control, energy efficiency, views, and lighting quality as well as light quantity. architects who understand the full range of possibilities available from gl manufacturers are able to use them as a complete palette to create designs that excel in all areas.

gl and glazing overview

the main ingredient of gl is sio2 (silica sand). during the first half of the 1900s the predominant gl manufacturing technology was to create plate gl from molten sio2 which moved along rollers while still heated. this created imperfections in the surface of the gl that needed to be ground and polished to produce parallel surfaces that were optically clear. during the 1950s and 60s sir alastair pilkington invented and perfected the process of creating float gl which has become the current world standard for the production of high-quality gl . float gl is manufactured by melting sand, soda ash, dolomite, and limestone, along with other minor batch materials to produce a continuous gl ribbon. the molten gl flows from the furnace and “floats” over a bed of molten tin where it spreads out to form a level sheet with virtually parallel surfaces. it is then carefully cooled to anneal the gl —a process that minimizes the internal stresses enabling it to be cut.


common terms and performance criteria relevant to gl include:

u-factor: the thermal conductance of a material. the lower the number the better the insulation or thermal control. u-factors are often measured at various points in a window unit including the center and the edge of the gl .

r-value: the thermal resistance of a material. r-values are the reciprocal of u-factors (r= 1/u) meaning a higher number represents higher thermal resistance.

solar heat gain coefficient (shgc): the ratio of solar heat gain through gl relative to the amount of incident solar radiation. the lower the number the greater the solar control.

visible light transmittance (vlt): the percentage of light in the visible spectrum that is transmitted through the gl . the higher the number, the greater the amount of light that p es through the gl , regardless of its color. visible light makes up about 47 percent of the solar spectrum, with wavelengths from 380 to 780 nanometers.

ultraviolet light (uv): about 2 percent of the solar spectrum with wavelengths ranging 300 to 380 nanometers. although ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye, long-term uv exposure contributes to fading and aging of organic based materials. 40 percent of fading comes from visible light other than uv.

infrared (ir): about 51 percent of the solar spectrum, with wavelengths ranging from 790 to 3,000 nanometers.

low emissivity: emissivity is the ability of a surface to reflect or emit heat by radiation. the lower the number, the more efficiently the object reduces radiative heat gain or heat loss, which means a lower u-factor and better insulation.


p o courtesy of pilkington north america

a nces in gl technology give architects a wide variety of choices to meet design requirements for performance, aesthetics, and comfort.

variations in the float gl manufacturing process or additional actions immediately after allow for the creation of different types of gl and glazing. each general type is produced to create different properties of light transmission, thermal characteristics, or other inherent structural properties. several of the common types can be briefly summarized as follows:

coated gl

during float gl manufacturing, pyrolytic coatings are incorporated into the gl by depositing microscopically thin layers of metallic oxides using a process known as chemical vapor deposition (cvd). having this type of hard pyrolytic surface fired on at over 640°c (1,200°f) make pyrolytic products more durable than sputter coating which is a low pressure technique that deposits coatings using physical vapor deposition, typically without applied heat. the pyrolytic process creates extremely durable coated products that can easily be handled, transported, and processed. these products typically combine low emissivity, solar control, low reflection, and self-cleaning properties. in addition, because the pyrolytic surface doesn’t degrade like a sputtered coating, it can be warehoused locally for availability, reducing project lead times across the country and around the world.

heat strengthened

annealed gl is subjected to a special heat-treatment in which it is heated to about 680°c (1256°f) and afterwards cooled. when it is cooled slowly, the gl is twice as strong as annealed gl . if it does break the fragments of the broken gl may remain in the frame but are large. heat strengthened gl is not recognized as a “safety gl ” by typical building codes.

tempered gl

tempered gl is at least four times stronger than annealed gl . when broken, it shatters into many small fragments which reduces the potential for major injuries. this type of gl is intended for gl facades, sliding doors, building entrances, bath and shower enclosures, and other uses requiring superior strength and safety properties.

laminated safety gl

laminated gl comprises two or more layers of gl bonded together with a plastic or resin interlayer. if broken, the interlayer is designed to hold the gl together. virtually all gl types can be laminated and the thickness and types of interlayer can be varied to provide ballistic, bomb or physical attack resistance. laminated gl also provides attenuation of sound and can typically be cut and further processed.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

pyrolytic coatings are applied during the gl manufacturing process to create a product that provides high performance and durability.

low-e gl

this type of coated gl provides thermal control and enhanced insulation, as well as control of solar heat gain when combined with a solar control gl in either a monolithic or insulating gl unit. low-e coatings reduce the emissivity of the gl surface meaning the gl provides greater insulation by reflecting heat back towards its source and can also be designed to absorb or reflect solar energy. as such, low-e coatings are useful for reducing both solar heat gain and heat loss. for a sense of context, uncoated gl has a typical emissivity of 0.84 while a low-e coated gl could have an emissivity of 0.15. this means only 15 percent of heat is absorbed and re-emitted while the rest is reflected. different combinations of low-e coatings can be used in an insulated gl unit to provide the desired performance.

insulating gl units

insulating units are two or more panels of gl bonded to a perimeter spacer material with a hermetically sealed airspace. the primary benefit is to improve thermal performance with better u-factors as well as solar control by influencing the solar heat gain coefficient (shgc). most types of processed gl can be incorporated into an insulating gl unit to adjust and fine tune its overall properties accordingly. double glazed units are the most commonly used type of insulating gl unit, however in some climates the use of multi-cavity triple glazed units is increasing in response to tightening energy codes.

design issues and gl solutions

with a basic understanding of different manufactured gl types, we can now turn our attention to particular issues that are commonly addressed in building designs to determine the best type of gl that may be suitable solutions.

controlling solar gains

a great deal of the increasing emphasis on energy use in buildings has been placed on the building envelope and particularly on gl and glazing. with the increasing sensitivity toward reducing fossil fuel usage in particular, energy codes and standards have been becoming more demanding in terms of the performance of glazing. they have steadily been raising the bar on performance such that glazing needs to be carefully addressed during design and appropriately specified to both anticipate and achieve the intended energy performance.

the first and perhaps most significant point about energy performance when it comes to glazing is that the building location and the orientation of the gl in respect to the sun (i.e. solar orientation) are the starting points. there is no single universal solution across all locations and all orientations. energy codes and ashrae standard 90.1 recognize this fact by identifying and defining separate u.s. climate zones which are the basis for determining all other aspects of energy performance and code compliance. from there, the codes require varying degrees thermal performance or solar control depending on location and orientation.

many commercial buildings are located in warm or temperate climate zones with internal operations that generate heat inside the building (i.e. internal heat loads). hence, more energy may be needed to cool the building than to heat it in a typical year. controlling the amount of heat that comes through gl in these cases becomes the dominant design issue then. it should be recognized that heat travels through gl both from the sun’s direct radiation and from the transfer of heat from the ambient exterior environment. therefore, selecting gl that provides solar control to address both the sunlight and ambient heat reflectance will maximize performance.

gl can provide direct solar control by one of two fundamental choices. first, it can absorb a portion of the solar energy striking it through the use of absorptive colored tints or absorbing coatings added to the gl . this significantly reduces solar heat and uv light transmittance as compared to clear gl products. tints add color to the look of the building and reduce the visible light transmittance (vlt) through the gl , all of which are variable based on the degree of tinting and color selected. the key to selecting tinted gl is finding the balance to achieve solar control, help control glare and contribute to the aesthetics of the building. tinted gl is readily available in a variety of thicknesses (generally between 1/8 inch and 1/2 inch) and can be processed and fabricated similarly to normal float gl making it a convenient way to reduce solar gain. tinted gl features a full range of color choices such as green, blue, blue-green, bronze, and grey colors. they commonly provide low external and internal reflectance meaning that they are not very mirror-like. they can be laminated, strengthened, and even bent using standard techniques. further, they can be used singly or in combination with other glazing in insulating gl units. all of these traits have made tinted gl a common solar control choice in low, mid, and high rise office buildings, medical / hospital buildings, educational / school buildings and retail locations.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

the chart depicts the percentage transmittance of typical gl types and colors. it demonstrates how tinted gl lowers shgc through a reduction in transmittance in the solar infrared region, while maintaining high light transmittance in the visible light region.

instead of absorbing energy, the other choice of achieving solar control with gl is to reflect it back varying degrees of solar light or heat energy (or both) by applying various coatings during manufacturing. the types and effectiveness of the coating can vary notably between gl products and between manufacturers so it is important to review the technical data to be sure that a coating is selected appropriate to the building, its location, and solar orientation. for example, a coating that produces a low shgc value will result in very little solar heat p ing through the gl while a low-e coating reduces the emissivity of gl and lowers the u-factor. some manufacturers have coatings that will achieve both solar control and low emissivity and those should be looked at for suitability. coated gl is available in some fairly clear versions or in a full range of colors including green, blue, blue-green, bronze, gold, and grey. the coatings also commonly reduce uv light transmittance which means fading is reduced in fabrics, artwork, etc. coatings have been recognized as an ideal means to achieve a rather precise level of solar control for new commercial construction or renovation projects. specifically by using different coatings on different layers of a dual pane insulated gl unit, the options and possibilities increase for balancing heat gain against light transmittance and u-factors. hence, coated gl has been commonly used in commercial buildings requiring solar and thermal control such as low, mid and hi-rise buildings, medical/ hospital buildings, educational/ school facilities, office buildings, retail establishments, and residential structures of all types.

controlling heat loss

turning to colder climates, the approach to thermal energy performance with gl is different. in these locations, the energy required for heating is greater than for cooling over the course of the year. hence, there is usually a desire to allow sunlight to freely penetrate into the building during the heating season to take a ntage of p ive solar gains. this means selecting gl with a higher shgc may be desirable, particularly on sun facing facades. at the same time, low emissivity is desired to redirect energy (i.e. interior room heat) back into a building (rather than out of it), to achieve much lower heat loss than ordinary float gl . for such buildings, this coating is often selected to allow for enhanced clarity and light transmittance which will tend to favor a pyrolytic surface coating over a sputter coating. once again, the use of different coatings on different layers of insulated gl units allows for some fine tuning of the glazing to suit particular circumstances of different buildings, different solar orientations and different performance needs. the surfaces of insulated gl units are identified by number such that in a typical double pane unit, surface #1 faces the building exterior, #2 is the inner face of the outer pane (in the space between the gl layers), #3 is the exterior face of the inner pane (also in the space between gl layers), and #4 faces the building interior. usually the coatings are placed on surfaces #2 and #3 so they are not exposed.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

use of a low-e coating on surface #4 in combination with a low-e coating on surface #2 provides a significant reduction in u-factor of approximately 20 percent.

low-e 4th surface technology

in order to improve the energy efficiency of insulated gl units without increasing the thickness or weight of the window, at least one manufacturer has developed a coating for the 4th surface of the double glazed unit. this 4th surface coating works in combination with a low-e coating on surface #2 to create a significant reduction in u-factor of approximately 20 percent. pyrolytic low-e coatings are well suited for this purpose as they provide the a ntage of being very durable and difficult to damage, with a track record of use in these types of application for well over 10 years.

daylighting and views

in some cases, the visual performance of the gl may be the overriding design issue. this can be true in buildings where daylighting is being used to turn off electric lights and save energy or in cases where the ability to view through the gl with clarity and good color rendition is important. note that all of the gl discussed for thermal energy performance provides some degree of visual performance and the gl described in this section provides some degree of thermal performance. the distinction is the degree to which the two are balanced or weighted to favor one over the other due to its specific location in a specific building.

among the things to take into account in selecting gl for daylighting is the quality of the light that will end up in the interior space. the color of the gl or the coating can affect the color of the transmitted light while clear gl will allow for more accurate color renditions. however, clear gl can be a source of glare. if the gl is not shaded, does not face away from the sun, or is not treated to reduce glare, then the shear light intensity or the high contrast between it and the other interior spaces can create disturbing and unwanted bright light. in that case people will often respond by closing blinds or otherwise block the daylight undoing the intended benefit of the design. selecting a tinted or coated gl therefore that appropriately addresses glare while still keeping the color clear may be an optimal solution in some cases.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

the quality and the quantity of light are important factors for spaces that are naturally daylight using gl .

in addition to letting daylight into buildings, allowing people to view out without undue color or view quality issues is also a common design requirement. clear gl is available that offers excellent optical properties, transmitting up to 90 percent of the sun’s visible spectrum thus maintaining high clarity and low distortion with brilliant flat surfaces. it is available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses for optimum utilization and is applicable in commercial, residential, and institutional buildings of all types.

safety gl

there are many interior and exterior applications where codes and general practice require the use of safety gl that reduces the possibility of injury if broken. tempered gl is commonly used, although the tempering process introduces distortion in the gl which can give the unwanted characteristic of visual waviness. furthermore there is a small risk of spontaneous breakage when using tempered gl , which restricts its use in certain applications. heat strengthened and laminated gl es are options to mitigate these issues. one thing to be aware of however, is that heat treating float gl to produce either heat strengthened or tempered gl requires a focused cooling process called quenching. the quenching air jets used in a tempering furnace cannot cool the gl with complete uniformity though. as a result some areas are cooled faster than others, resulting in differential shrinkage which creates areas of different compressive stress. this differentiation can create “quench marks” due to very slight changes in the gl density which affects the light p ing through the gl . quench marks should not be considered a defect; they are an indication that the gl has been heat treated. appearance of quench marks is dependent on lighting conditions and they can be visible in transmission and reflection, and particularly when viewing the gl at an angle other than directly facing the gl . they are more visible in thicker, clear, heat treated, gl ; when a lightly reflective coating is used; or when both lights of gl in an insulating gl (ig) unit are heat treated. they become particularly visible in any gl when polarizing sungl es are worn. therefore, if viewing clarity is the priority, designs which do not require heat strengthened or tempered gl can be preferable to those that do. it is always important to construct a mock-up of the intended glazing design to gain an understanding of any potential issues related to distortion or quench marks.

visual clarity

there are many applications where gl is used and great visual clarity is the major design criteria. this might include retail displays, showrooms, museums, sports stadiums, zoo enclosures and exhibits. in these cases gl is commonly used to create a physical barrier but clear visual characteristics are needed without distortion. since visual clarity is affected by the amount of visual reflections that appear on the surface of the gl , anti-reflective gl is available to overcome this issue. it is formed by using two pyrolytic coated surfaces in a single laminated gl product to minimize visible light reflectance to less than 2 percent compared to normal clear gl which is 8 percent. this allows more than 90 percent of visible light to transmit through the anti-reflective laminated gl with very low masking reflections. in addition, anti-reflective gl can block more than 99 percent of transmitted uv thus reducing the fading of interior fabric and furnishings. as a laminated gl product, it also offers the traditional benefits of enhanced security, improved safety, and damage protection. it is possible to get anti-reflective gl tempered if increased strength is required. one manufacturer produces an anti-reflective gl that offers a lower emissivity than normal gl ; giving improved thermal insulation in addition to a reflection reduction.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

ordinary gl on the left can produce veiling reflections that obscure the view through to the other side. anti-reflective gl on the right dramatically improves the clarity of objects beyond the gl .

for situations where very pure color clarity and high vlt are desired, low iron gl may be worth considering. normally, all gl has traces of iron content which is responsible for the edges of a piece of clear gl appearing green. when gl is manufactured by deliberately reducing the amount of iron present, the green edge color is reduced in intensity and the view looking through the gl is very clear. it is therefore ideal for use where gl edges are visible or where a neutral color is desired. as its light transmission is 1 percent and 8 percent higher than clear float gl in 3 mm to 19 mm thickness respectively, it is perfect for applications where transparency and purity of color are desired. it can be used in anti-reflective gl , in insulated gl units, and for maximizing solar heat gain in colder climates. low-iron gl can also be heat treated for safety and laminated for security. all of these traits make it a high clarity choice for storefronts and displays, furniture, solar collectors, p ovoltaic panels, and special applications requiring thick gl such as bullet resistant gl , aquariums etc.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

low-iron gl shown on the left is more optically clear without the common green tint found in most conventional gl products as seen on the right, particularly along the gl edges.

special building design applications

there are a number of building design situations where some very specific needs arise for gl . manufacturers have responded by developing and testing gl products to meet those special applications.

fire resistance with gl

for building areas that require viewing through gl but also high levels of fire protection, then fire-resistant gl should be considered. it is specifically designed to limit conductive and radiative heat transfer with product performances ranging from 20 to 120 minutes. these gl products must always be used as part of an approved fire resistance or fire protected framing embly. fire-resistant gl consists of multiple laminates of float gl and a special transparent intumescent interlayer, which is totally compatible and optically homogeneous with the gl . when exposed to fire, the pane facing the flames fractures but remains in place. as the heat penetrates the gl , the interlayers react by foaming to form a thick, opaque, resilient and tough insulating shield that blocks the conductive and radiant heat of the blaze. as a design tool, it allows natural light and unobstructed views in fire rated walls, openings and doors while restricting the spread of heat, smoke, flames and gases. it can be combined with a full range of other gl products to address security, bullet and hurricane resistance or visual clarity requirements. these products are typically tested and cl ified independently by organizations such as underwriters laboratories (ul). ultimately, it addresses health safety and welfare by reducing fire damage to people, property and valuables.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

fire-resistant gl can be used to spread daylight and create open visual contact in areas that require fire resistance ratings in buildings.

acoustic control

some buildings are subject to higher levels of noise than others while some building uses are simply more sensitive to noise affecting the occupants / users of that building. either way, unwanted noise coming from things like roadway traffic, railways, aircraft, factory operations, , or other activities needs to be limited and controlled. methods of creating sound insulating walls are common and fairly well known, but if those walls have windows, the gl needs to provide acoustic control as well. noise control gl is the ideal choice in situations like this. by using a polyvinyl butyral (pvb) interlayer laminated between two layers of selected float gl , manufacturers offer a high quality product that produces excellent noise reduction without compromising on light transmittance or impact resistance. the acoustic performance can be varied by combining different thicknesses of gl with the pvb interlayer to achieve a specified rating. in this way noise control gl offers the opportunity to achieve project-specific noise reduction requirements. it is generally available in a variety of sizes and can be fabricated to meet any needed safety ratings. it can be used singly or in double or triple pane insulating gl units (igus). depending on the configuration and thickness of the gl , test results have shown that noise control gl can achieve stc ratings between 31 and 39. one manufacturer offers a laminate with a special pvb that specifically reduces mid-range frequencies and tests with an stc in the low 40s. attenuation of mid-range frequencies is important as this includes sounds such as urban road traffic, railway traffic, and factory noise.

self-cleaning exterior gl

buildings of many types that contain glazing that is difficult to reach for cleaning or simply require cleaning because of the surrounding environment can create ongoing high maintenance expenses. in response, a rather innovative gl product has been developed that uses the power of the sun to clean itself. this self-cleaning gl can dramatically reduce or eliminate window cleaning, while still offering good visual clarity and an unspoiled exterior aesthetic. this gl uses uv energy from the sun, which is abundant even on cloudy, overcast days, to keep windows clean naturally in several steps. first, a p ocatalytic process generated by additives in the gl loosens dirt and gradually breaks down organic residue so it doesn’t adhere to the gl . next a hydrophilic action on the gl surface causes rain to sheet on the gl , carrying dirt away with minimal spotting or streaking. under most conditions, natural rain is sufficient to keep the window clean, and a quick spray with a hose will achieve the same result even in prolonged dry weather. since the coatings used in this self-cleaning gl are pyrolytic and an integral part of the gl surface, they aren’t susceptible to peeling, separation or disintegration over time. in addition, they are not damaged by liquid gl cleaners so there is no need to be concerned about re-coating or retreating the gl . combined in an insulating unit with an inboard lite of either low-e or solar control gl , all aspects of glazing performance in a building can be addressed and maintained. self-cleaning gl is commonly available in clear or blue colors and a range of thickness from 1/8 inch up to ¼ inch.

emerging technologies

while all of the gl types and products discussed so far represent a fair amount of innovation and technological a nces, manufacturers are continuing to pursue even more ways to address building design issues through a nced products. some of these include the following cutting edge glazing innovations.

vacuum insulated glazing

a vacuum, is very effective at minimizing conduction and convection heat losses. while a perfect vacuum with zero heat transfer is not easily achievable, it is possible to produce a partial vacuum with notably reduced heat transfer. these insulating principles of vacuums are being applied by some manufacturers to create a high performance gl with a thinner profile. they are offering vacuum insulated glazing that is different than conventional double glazing in that the air between the two panes of gl is extracted, to create the needed vacuum. in order to keep the panes from collapsing in on each other, micro-sized spacers are used to keep the panes apart. nonetheless, the gap between the two panes can be reduced to just 0.2 mm, giving the gl an overall thickness of just over 6 mm (1/4 inch). heat flow through radiation can be reduced by covering one of the gl panes with a low-emissivity coating, similar to that used in conventional double glazing. therefore, despite its thin profile, vacuum insulated glazing can achieve u-factors as low as 0.18 btu/hr.sqft°f in a ¼ inch profile. that means the same or better thermal performance is achieved as conventional double glazing but in one quarter of the thickness and two thirds the weight. that makes it ideal for retrofit or historic preservation projects where an existing window sash or frame needs to be preserved and conventional insulated glazing units won’t fit. thus it balances historical preservation with modern comfort and environmental requirements while allowing windows that are more in keeping with the original design.

there are of course some variations available for vacuum insulated glazing. for locations that require solar control, the coated surface can be designed to achieve the needed shgc. for situations that can accommodate the width of igus, it is possible to use a triple glazed, coated vacuum insulating gl unit that gives u-factors as low as 0.12 btu/hr.sqft°f. this combination uses a vacuum insulated gl unit with a conventional spacer, gas fill and a coated outer pane to create a hybrid unit with superior thermal performance. both designs allow for minimum disruption in existing buildings making it a cost effective method of improving the energy efficiency. the vacuum also allows for improved acoustic performance over single glazing, enhancing the living and working environment. while this is regarded as an emerging technology in the us, it should be noted that it has been successfully used in japan for over fifteen years and is really a proven solution.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

vacuum insulated glazing uses clear micro spacers to keep the panes separated but still allows for good visual clarity in the size and weight of gl suitable for historic renovations.

specialty glazing

manufacturers continue to expand and develop the range of coatings that can be used on gl to meet very specific and special needs. as a result, specialty gl has become available that can be used to meet those needs. for example, controlling conden ion on gl doors of built in refrigerators / freezers in supermarkets or other retail settings can be an ongoing problem both for maintenance and for visibility of merchandise. as a result, electrically conductive gl has been developed that allows the gl to be electrically heated and overcome this problem. it is color neutral, minimizing reflected color and will not change over time. it easily fabricated with a durable pyrolytic coating that can be handled, cut, insulated, laminated, heat-strengthened and tempered and is even bendable. the heated gl is scratch and abrasion resistant and is available in a variety of gl thicknesses and sheet resistances ranging from 5 ohms/square up to several thousand ohms/square. as a result, heated gl combines thermal control with superior electro-optical properties to keep merchandise clearly visible. heated glazing has also been used in a variety of architectural applications, such as in restaurants where thermal comfort of the diners is important. here the heated glazing provides heat to the building occupants.

other specialty glazing has been developed for electro-optical applications such as computer screens or touch screens in buildings or glazing that will control static when touched. for buildings that want to use p ovoltaic (solar-electric) energy, specialty gl and glazing has been developed for both rigid panels and thin film applications. the rise in the use of building integrated p ovoltaic cells (bipv) is made possible because of the effective development and proper use of this type of specialty glazing that maximizes the energy generating potential of these systems.

electrically conductive specialty gl can be used to keep gl panels clear in retail settings where commercial refrigeration is used.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

electrically conductive specialty gl can be used to keep gl panels clear in retail settings where commercial refrigeration is used.

switchable electrochromic glazing

when gl is tinted or coated it achieves the resultant performance properties permanently. this means that the gl performs the same way all the time regardless of any changing light conditions outside. an innovative alternative is to use gl that can literally be switched from clear, to lightly tinted to dark tinted and levels in between. this is being achieved by using electrochromic coatings which are applied to panes of conventional float gl or float gl coated with transparent conductive coatings. electrochromic coatings are typically metal oxides and are thin films like other gl coatings. when a very small electric voltage is applied across the coatings, ions travel between layers, where a reversible solid state change takes place, causing the coating to tint and absorb light. reversing the polarity of the applied voltage causes the ions to migrate back to their original layer, and the gl returns to its clear state. this ability to switch gl back and forth at will is particularly useful and desirable in large daylit spaces where different uses and lighting conditions dictate different needs for the gl . typically electrochromic glazing should be integrated into the building control system to maximize efficiency. other types of switchable glazing are available, including lcd based privacy gl and thermochromic and p ochromic based materials.

green building contributions of gl

the us green building council (usgbc) has developed the leed® rating system for green buildings which has been recognized as the leading green building standard in this country. the leed 2009 system is in place until the year 2015 which overlaps with leed version 4 introduced late in 2013. since buildings are currently being designed under both systems, credits available for both are summarized below which properly selected gl products can contribute to.

optimize energy performance

both leed 2009 and leed v. 4 place a strong emphasis on reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of non-polluting renewable energy. as we have seen, the range of gl products available allow architects and other design professionals to truly optimize performance by selecting gl that is coated, tinted, or otherwise fabricated to best suit a particular building and its location, and even vary the selections to suit individual building facades and installations. if on-site renewable energy is pursued, it is likely that p ovoltaic solar cells will be considered which the properly selected gl will support and make possible. in order to receive points in this credit category the building must demonstrate a percentage increase in energy savings in accordance with ashrae standards. the number of points earned depends on the degree of energy savings and/or the amount of energy generated on site.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

solar p ovoltaic systems rely on appropriate solar gl to allow the optimization of energy being produced without relying on any fossil fuels.

materials and resources

this area has changed dramatically between the different versions of the leed® rating system. leed 2009 includes four areas where metal wall panels can contribute to an overall green building:

mr credit 4: recycled content: 10 percent and 20 percent (1 – 2 points) post-consumer gl is a highly recyclable material that can be re-used or repurposed into a variety of products such as gl containers, counter tops and landscaping material. however, it cannot be utilized in the float gl manufacturing process since even the smallest impurity can compromise the product quality and manufacturing process. therefore, float gl manufacturing cannot utilize recycled gl as defined by the leed rating system.

credit 5: regional materials (1 – 2 points). many gl manufacturing plants are located throughout the usa meaning a regional material contribution is possible depending on proximity to the building.

the materials and resources category under leed v. 4 takes a rather different approach to defining the green nature of building products. the new approach focuses on the full life cycle of those products. the key documentation needed to demonstrate performance under this approach is referred to as an environmental product declaration (epd). individual manufacturers or a trade ociation can prepare specific or generic epds for products. in the case of gl products, check with the manufacturer to see what is available for documentation to earn the appropriate points for this updated category.

indoor environmental quality

under ieq credit 8.1 daylight & 8.2 views, gl plays a very significant role as has been discussed. the beauty of the range of glazing choices is that daylight can be brought into spaces while still addressing the thermal needs of the building and without blocking the view. gl products have daylight transmissions ranging from 92 percent down to 8 percent, when single glazed. as outdoor daylight (no direct sun) is in the 1,000 to 2,500 foot candle range, even the lowest transmission (darkest) gl in large sizes, can meet the minimum credit requirement with only 8 percent transmittance of 1000 foot candles (i.e. 80 fc luminance).

innovation in design

under both leed 2009 and leed v. 4, credit is given for recognized innovations that exceed minimum performance levels in green building components or systems. hence, it is entirely possible to achieve some additional credit by using some of the innovative or emerging technologies related to gl that improve on leed minimum performance levels. more significantly, it is possible to show innovation by using these systems to improve the building overall by finding appropriate ways to address differing needs and strike the right balance between them under different operating conditions.


case study
michigan state university federal credit union headquarters building

location: east lansing, michigan

architect: daniels and zermack ociates, inc.
gregory a. mckenzie, aia, principal-in-charge, ann arbor, mi

glazing contractor: calvin and company of flint, mi

gl fabricator: pdc michigan of plymouth, mi

gl used: solar control low-e coated

celebrating its grand opening of a new headquarters building in east lansing, mi, the michigan state university federal credit union (msufcu) is setting the standard for green construction and sustainable design. the new gold leed® certified, 145,000-square-foot building, along us-127, is the permanent location for the company headquarters. operating for over 73 years, msufcu is the largest university-based credit union in the world. with its primary focus being its members and community, the construction of the new headquarters building proves to be a valuable contribution. msufcu in collaboration with architects, daniels and zermack ociates, inc. in ann arbor, mi, have integrated green design and construction materials for an energy efficient, sustainable project.

daniels and zermack have been providing innovative building design to financial institutions for over 60 years. the full service firm specializes in new construction, additions, planning, and renovations. greg mckenzie, aia, principal-in-charge of the project, took the efficiency of the building into great consideration during design. mckenzie worked closely with glazing contractor, calvin and company of flint, mi and gl fabricator, pdc michigan of plymouth, mi to select the best possible gl choices to achieve the desired outcomes. the four story headquarters building showcases 44,000 square-feet of solar control, low-e glazing selected for this project because it provides a perfect blend of visible daylight along with low solar heat gain. the low-emissivity properties combined with solar control result in energy cost reductions compared to ordinary gl .

overall, nearly 80 percent of the building takes a ntage of natural day lighting to reduce the need for artificial lighting,” according to mckenzie. however, msufcu wanted a building that did not require the use of blinds since they were viewed as an added cost that compromises the appearance of the building from the exterior. the selected glazing provides glare control which allows for this design option. the contemporary building design blends the aesthetics of all the branch locations, which showcase brick and green gl facades. mckenzie said, “the gl is a great color match and we are very pleased with the result.” the building’s attractive low-e gl facade allows natural light in, absorbs and blocks solar energy, reducing the amount of heat that can enter the building. it combines great aesthetics, solar and thermal performance, subtle reflectivity and glare control all in the final design.


conclusion

architects design buildings to meet a variety of criteria and in so doing combine professional skill with appropriate material and product selection. float gl has been shown to be a vital and integral building material that is manufactured in a full range of products to address many general and very specific design issues. as such, architects are now able to select specific gl products for different projects and façades from a vast range of combinations of tempered, laminated, tinted and coated gl . by understanding the differences and benefits between the different manufactured choices the performance, aesthetics, and functionality come together to create building designs that can meet or exceed expectations


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the term discourse analysis has come to be used with a wide range of meaning which cover a wide range of activities
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discourse analysis of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran

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discourse analysis of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran

the term discourse analysis has come to be used with a wide range of meaning which cover a wide range of activities. there are many existing approaches to the study of language. one of them which this study is based upon, is critical discourse analysis (cda). this approach grew out of work in different disciplines in the 1960s and early 1970s, including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology and sociology. cda analyses social interactions in a way which focuses upon their linguistic elements, and which sets out to show up their generally hidden determinants in the system of social relationships, as well as hidden effects they may have upon that system. since cda is not a specific direction of research, it does not have a unitary theoretical framework. therefore, in this research project, in order to overcome the potential weaknesses of any single method, a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted from some of the most influential linguists in the field to analyse the formal linguistic features of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran, to explain discourse structures in terms of properties of social interaction and especially social structure, and to focus on the ways discourse structures enact, conform, legitimate, reproduce or challenge relations of power and ideology in society.

aims and objectives

  1. to help correct a widespread underestimation of the significance of language in the production, maintenance, and change of social relations of power in iran.
  2. to refer to the order of discourse of the society as a whole, which structures the orders of discourse of the various social institutions in a particular way.
  3. to show that orders of discourse are ideologically harmonized internally or (at the societal level) with each other.
  4. to stress both the determination of discourse by social structure, and the effects of discourse upon society through its reproduction of social structures.
  5. to examine the relationship between discourse and sociocultural change.

so this research project aims to answer the following questions:

  1. what were the formal textual features of the conservatives’ and reformists’ discourses at the 7th presidential election?
  2. how did their discourses and strategies change and why?
  3. what were the ideologies behind the discourse of each group?
  4. what was the relationship between language of each party and power?

sources and methodology

there are many existing approaches to the study of language (e.g. linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive psychology, etc.) but while each of them has something to contribute to critical language study, they all have major limitations from a critical point of view.

the critical discourse analysis upon which this study is based, does not adhere to any particular approach. it is similar to a qualitative research method in that it deals with non-numerical data and can only be validated by other researchers examining the same data. however, its similarity can only be detected to a certain point because a qualitative research method is either synthetic or holistic, whereas critical linguistics is analytic in nature. a qualitative method on content analysis is rejected on the grounds of its inability to get beneath the textual surface where the crucial meanings lie. so in this research a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted from some of the most influential linguists in the field (in order to overcome the potential weaknesses of any single method) including fairclaough (1989, 1992, 1995), fowler (1991) and van dijk (1981, 1985) to :

  1. study the theoretical aspects of the subject i.e. explanation and definition of the concepts of ideology, power, discourse, discourse analysis, order of discourse, critical discourse analysis, etc.
  2. study the descriptive aspects of the subject, i.e. giving a systematic presentation of a procedure for critical discourse analysis; setting out a view of interrelationship of language and society; illustrating the place of language in society, and showing that language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power.
  3. study the analytic aspects of the subject, i.e. analysing the formal textual features of their statements, press interviews and electoral speeches and manifestoes of the two main candidates for presidency – khatami and nategh noori and their main supporters.

as the primary sources of the present study, the written electoral materials such as the speeches and manifestoes published in newspapers and the published interviews and debates of the candidates, and as the secondary sources the speeches, statements and articles of other politicians as well as the editorials of the newspapers regarding the presidential election, from the 8th of may, 1997 when the council of guardians announced the names of the eligible candidates upto the last day of election (23rd of may, 1997) would be taken into consideration.

time period required to complete the research project: approximately two years.

field work: no specific field work is required in this research project.

place/libraries where research work is to be carried out: in order to establish a good, rich theoretical framework for the study, i have to visit and search so many libraries and universities such s american centre library, british council library, library of delhi university, library of jnu (all located in delhi) as well as the library of panjab university, changidarh.

since this research project aims to analyse the texts from the seventh presidential election in iran, and as per the recommendation of the committee i have co-opted a co-supervisor from iran in my research work, therefore for collecting the relevant materials as well as visiting my co-supervisor i also have to visit iran.

proposal

background of the study: the 1970s saw the emergence of a form of discourse and text analysis that recognized the role of language in structuring power relations in society. at that time, much linguistic research elsewhere was focused on formal aspects of language which constituted the linguistic competence of speakers which could theoretically be isolated from specific instances of language use (chomsky, 1957). where the relation between language and context was considered, as in pragmatics (levinson, 1983), with a focus on speakers’ pragmatic / socio-linguistic competence, sentences and components of sentences were still regarded as the basic units. much socio-linguistic research at the time was aimed at describing and explaining language variation, language change and the structures of communicative interaction, with limited attention to issues of social hierarchy and power (labov, 1972; hymes, 1972). in such a context, attention to texts, their production and interpretation and their relation to societal impulses and structures, signalled a very different kind of interest (de beugrande and dressler, 1981). the work of kress and hodge (1979) and wodak (1989) serve to explain and illustrate the main umptions, principles and procedures of what had then become known as critical linguistics.

kress (1990 : 84-97) gives an account of the theoretical foundations and sources of critical linguistics. by the 1990s the label critical discourse analysis e to be used more consistently with this particular approach to linguistic analysis. kress (1990 : 94) shows how critical discourse analysis by that time was ‘emerging as a distinct theory of language, a radically different kind of linguistics’. many of the basic umptions of critical discourse analysis that were salient in the early stages, and were elaborated in later development of the theory, are articulated in kress’s (1989) work.

fowler et al. (1979) has been referred to in order to ascertain the early foundations of critical linguistics. later work of fowler (1991, 1996) shows how tools provided by standard linguistic theories (a 1965 version of chomskyan grammar, and halliday’s theory of systemic functional grammar) can be used to uncover linguistic structures of power in texts. not only in news discourses, but also in literary criticism fowler illustrates that systematic grammatical devices function in establishing, manipulating and naturalizing social hierarchies.

fairclough (1989) sets out the social theories under planning critical discourse analysis, and as in other early critical linguistic work, a variety of textual examples are anlaysed to illustrate the field, its aims and methods of analysis. later fairclough (1992, 1995) and chouliariki and fairclough (1999) explain and elaborate some a nces in critical discourse analysis, showing not only how the analytical framework for investigating language in relation to power and ideology developed, but also how critical discourse analysis is useful in disclosing the discursive nature of much contemporary social and cultural change. particularly the language of the m media is scrutinized as a site of power, of struggle and also as a site where language is apparently transparent. media institutions often purport to be neutral in that they provide space for public discourse, that they reflect states of affairs disinterestedly, and that they give the perceptions and arguments of the newsmakers. fiarclaugh shows the fallacy of such umptions, and illustrates the mediating and constructing role of the media with a variety of examples.

van dijk’s earlier work in text linguistics and discourse analysis (1977, 1981) already shows the interest he takes in texts and discourses as basic units and social practices. like other critical linguistic theorists, he traces the origins of linguistic interest in units of language larger than sentences and in text - and context-dependency of meanings. van dijk and kintsch (1983) considered the relevance of discourse to the study of language processing. their development of a cognitive model of discourse understanding in individuals, gradually developed into cognitive models for explaining the construction of meaning on a societal level. van dijk (1985) collected the work of a variety of scholars for whom language and how it functions in discourse is variously the primary object of research, or a tool in the investigation of other social phenomena. this is in a way a documentation of the ‘state of the art’ of critical linguistics in the mid 1980s.

van dijk turns specifically to media discourse, giving not only his own reflection on communication in the m media (van dijk, 1986), but also bringing together the theories and applications of a variety of scholars interested in the production, uses and functions of media discourses (van dijk, 1985). in critically analysing various kinds of discourses that encode prejudice, van dijk’s interest is in developing a theoretical model that will explain cognitive discourse processing mechanisms. most recently van dijk has focused on issues of racism and ideology (van dijk, 1998).

by the end of the 1980s critical linguistics was able to describe its aims, research interests, chosen perspective and methods of analysis much more specifically and rigidly than hitherto. wodak (1989) lists, explains and illustrates the most important characteristics of critical linguistic research as they had become established in continued research. the relevance of investigating language use in institutional settings is reiterated, and a new focus on the necessity of a historical perspective is introduced (the discourse – historical approach). this was followed by a variety of research projects into discursive practices in institutional contexts that would ist in developing an integrated theory of critical discourse analysis.

statement of the subject: the fruitless study of language in isolation has led linguists to acknowledge the importance of considering social context in discourse analysis. deacon et al. (1999 : 147-8) propose : “discourse conjoins language use as text and practices. what we identify as ‘discourse’ and what we identify as ‘social’ are deeply intervened ... . all talks, all texts, are social in nature. language is not some transparent medium through which we see the world”. they make the point that “the moving to discourse analysis enabled linguistics to tackle the structures of whole texts, rather than just the sentences, words and parts of words taken in isolation which it had to a great extent concentrated on previously” (deacon et al., 1999 : 179). so, the analysis of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis of language in use and as such, it cannot be restricted to the description of linguistic forms independent of the purposes or functions which those forms are designed to serve in human affairs.

critical discourse analysis which this research work is based upon, analyses social interactions in a way which sets out to show up their generally hidden determinants in the system of social relationship as well as hidden effects they may have upon that system. critically study of language would place a broad conception of the social study of language at the core of language study. critical discourse analysis regards ‘language as social practice’ (fairclough and wodak, 1997), and takes consideration of the context of language use to be crucial (wodak, 2000; benke, 2000). moreover, critical discourse analysis takes a particular interest in the relation between language and power.

fairclough and wodak (1997) have put forward an eight-point programme to define critical discourse analysis as follows :

  1. critical discourse analysis addresses social problems.
  2. power relations are discursive.
  3. discourse constitutes society and culture.
  4. discourse does ideological work.
  5. discourse is historical.
  6. the link between text and society is mediated.
  7. discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory.
  8. discourse is a form of social action.

interpretation of text and discourse is, therefore, interpretation of socially determined language, and this means being involved in understanding the processes, functions and meanings of social interaction, and as birch (1989 : 153) claims, this means being involved in “politics of interaction”. in this way the links between people and society are not arbitrary and accidental, but one institutionally determined. critical language study aims to select and deconstruct these links and to understand the nature of language and society and their mutual effect on each other. critical discourse analysis sees discourses as parts of social struggles, and contextualizes them in terms of broader (non-discoursal) struggles, and the effects of these struggles on structures. it puts emphasis not only on the formal textual features of discourse but also on the social effects of discourse, on creativity, and on future. on the other hand, through critical discourse analysis the analyst can show what power relationships determine discourses; these relationships are themselves the outcome of struggles, and are established (and, ideally, naturalized) by those with power. it lays emphasis on the social determination of discourse, and on the past – on the results of past struggles.

the 7th presidential election in iran took place following a series of happenings which in fact was the aftermath of social forces in a broader competition between ideology and culture. this event was a turning point in the history of iran because, for the first time two different discourse types, based on two different ideologies, faced and challenged with each other. for the first time some slogans such as “civil society”, “liberalism”, “human rights”, “freedom of expression” etc. were brought up by the reformist party and these new concepts entered the current discourse of the society and somehow changed the social structure. so in this research project critical discourse analysis will be used to describe the formal properties and features of these two discourses in iran; to interpret the relationship between texts and interaction; to explain the relationship between interaction and social context and their social effects; to explore the relationship between language and ideology; and to illustrate the relationship between language and society and discourse and social structure in iran.


tentative chapter division

chapter one: introduction contains the background of the study, statement of the subject, aims and objectives of the study, research methodology, data collection, primary and secondary sources of the study, significance of the study as well as limitations of the study.

chapter two : review of literature provides detailed definition of the concepts such as discourse, discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, etc. and gives a brief overview to the approaches to discourse analysis. then it proposes a systematic presentation of a procedure for critical discourse analysis. this chapter also sets out a view of the interrelationship of language and society, with the emphasis upon power and ideology.

chapter three : discourse analysis of the reformist party. in this chapter a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted to analyse linguistic features of the electoral speeches, debates and interviews as well as electoral statements of the reformist party, and to investigate the ideology behind the discourse of this party, and to explore the relationship between their language and power.

chapter four : discourse analysis of the conservative party brings into focus the formal textual features of the electoral statements, debates and speeches of the conservative party during the seventh presidential election in iran and explores their ideological structures.

chapter five : conclusions and suggestions summarizes that language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and shows the links between linguistic features of electoral written texts and social, political and ideological structures, relations and processes they belong to.

scheme of chapterization

chapter one : introduction

chapter two : review of literature

  1. definition of the concepts
  2. history of discourse analysis
  3. approaches to discourse analysis
  4. the relationship between language, power and ideology

chapter three : discourse analysis of the reformist party

  1. critical discourse analysis of electoral speeches
  2. critical discourse analysis of the electoral debates and interviews
  3. critical discourse analysis of the electoral statements

chapter four : discourse analysis of the conservative party

  1. critical discourse analysis of electoral speeches
  2. critical discourse analysis of the electoral debates and interviews
  3. critical discourse analysis of the electoral statements
chapter five : conclusions and suggestions


iran


discourse analysis of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran
دسته: زبان خارجی
فرمت فایل: doc
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the term discourse analysis has come to be used with a wide range of meaning which cover a wide range of activities


 


 ید


discourse analysis of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran


 


 


       the term discourse analysis has come to be used with a wide range of meaning which cover a wide range of activities. there are many existing approaches to the study of language. one of them which this study is based upon, is critical discourse analysis (cda). this approach grew out of work in different disciplines in the 1960s and early 1970s, including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology and sociology. cda analyses social interactions in a way which focuses upon their linguistic elements, and which sets out to show up their generally hidden determinants in the system of social relationships, as well as hidden effects they may have upon that system. since cda is not a specific direction of research, it does not have a unitary theoretical framework. therefore, in this research project, in order to overcome the potential weaknesses of any single method, a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted from some of the most influential linguists in the field to analyse the formal linguistic features of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran, to explain discourse structures in terms of properties of social interaction and especially social structure, and to focus on the ways discourse structures enact, conform, legitimate, reproduce or challenge relations of power and ideology in society.




aims and objectives



  1. to help correct a widespread underestimation of the significance of language in the production, maintenance, and change of social relations of power in iran.

  2. to refer to the order of discourse of the society as a whole, which structures the orders of discourse of the various social institutions in a particular way.

  3. to show that orders of discourse are ideologically harmonized internally or (at the societal level) with each other.

  4. to stress both the determination of discourse by social structure, and the effects of discourse upon society through its reproduction of social structures.

  5. to examine the relationship between discourse and sociocultural change.


so this research project aims to answer the following questions:



  1. what were the formal textual features of the conservatives’ and reformists’ discourses at the 7th presidential election?

  2. how did their discourses and strategies change and why?

  3. what were the ideologies behind the discourse of each group?

  4. what was the relationship between language of each party and power?


sources and methodology


there are many existing approaches to the study of language (e.g. linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive psychology, etc.) but while each of them has something to contribute to critical language study, they all have major limitations from a critical point of view.


the critical discourse analysis upon which this study is based, does not adhere to any particular approach. it is similar to a qualitative research method in that it deals with non-numerical data and can only be validated by other researchers examining the same data.  however, its similarity can only be detected to a certain point because a qualitative research method is either synthetic or holistic, whereas critical linguistics is analytic in nature.  a qualitative method on content analysis is rejected on the grounds of its inability to get beneath the textual surface where the crucial meanings lie.  so in this research a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted from some of the most influential linguists in the field (in order to overcome the potential weaknesses of any single method) including fairclaough (1989, 1992, 1995), fowler (1991) and van dijk (1981, 1985) to :



  1. study the theoretical aspects of the subject i.e. explanation and definition of the concepts of ideology, power, discourse, discourse analysis, order of discourse, critical discourse analysis, etc.

  2. study the descriptive aspects of the subject, i.e. giving a systematic presentation of a procedure for critical discourse analysis; setting out a view of interrelationship of language and society; illustrating the place of language in society, and showing that language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power.

  3. study the analytic aspects of the subject, i.e. analysing the formal textual features of their statements, press interviews and electoral speeches and manifestoes of the two main candidates for presidency – khatami and nategh noori and their main supporters.


as the primary sources of the present study, the written electoral materials such as the speeches and manifestoes published in newspapers and the published interviews and debates of the candidates, and as the secondary sources the speeches, statements and articles of other politicians as well as the editorials of the newspapers regarding the presidential election, from the 8th of may, 1997 when the council of guardians announced the names of the eligible candidates upto the last day of election (23rd of may, 1997) would be taken into consideration.


time period required to complete the research project: approximately two years.


field work: no specific field work is required in this research project.


place/libraries where research work is to be carried out: in order to establish a good, rich theoretical framework for the study, i have to visit and search so many libraries and universities such s american centre library, british council library, library of delhi university, library of jnu (all located in delhi) as well as the library of panjab university, changidarh.


          since this research project aims to analyse the texts from the seventh presidential election in iran, and as per the recommendation of the committee i have co-opted a co-supervisor from iran in my research work, therefore for collecting the relevant materials as well as visiting my co-supervisor i also have to visit iran.


proposal


background of the study: the 1970s saw the emergence of a form of discourse and text analysis that recognized the role of language in structuring power relations in society.  at that time, much linguistic research elsewhere was focused on formal aspects of language which constituted the linguistic competence of speakers which could theoretically be isolated from specific instances of language use (chomsky, 1957).  where the relation between language and context was considered, as in pragmatics (levinson, 1983), with a focus on speakers’ pragmatic / socio-linguistic competence, sentences and components of sentences were still regarded as the basic units.  much socio-linguistic research at the time was aimed at describing and explaining language variation, language change and the structures of communicative interaction, with limited attention to issues of social hierarchy and power (labov, 1972; hymes, 1972).  in such a context, attention to texts, their production and interpretation and their relation to societal impulses and structures, signalled a very different kind of interest (de beugrande and dressler, 1981).  the work of kress and hodge (1979) and wodak (1989) serve to explain and illustrate the main umptions, principles and procedures of what had then become known as critical linguistics.


kress (1990 : 84-97) gives an account of the theoretical foundations and sources of critical linguistics.  by the 1990s the label critical discourse analysis e to be used more consistently with this particular approach to linguistic analysis.  kress (1990 : 94) shows how critical discourse analysis by that time was ‘emerging as a distinct theory of language, a radically different kind of linguistics’.  many of the basic umptions of critical discourse analysis that were salient in the early stages, and were elaborated in later development of the theory, are articulated in kress’s (1989) work.


fowler et al. (1979) has been referred to in order to ascertain the early foundations of critical linguistics.  later work of fowler (1991, 1996) shows how tools provided by standard linguistic theories (a 1965 version of chomskyan grammar, and halliday’s theory of systemic functional grammar) can be used to uncover linguistic structures of power in texts.  not only in news discourses, but also in literary criticism fowler illustrates that systematic grammatical devices function in establishing, manipulating and naturalizing social hierarchies.


fairclough (1989) sets out the social theories under planning critical discourse analysis, and as in other early critical linguistic work, a variety of textual examples are anlaysed to illustrate the field, its aims and methods of analysis.  later fairclough (1992, 1995) and chouliariki and fairclough (1999) explain and elaborate some a nces in critical discourse analysis, showing not only how the analytical framework for investigating language in relation to power and ideology developed, but also how critical discourse analysis is useful in disclosing the discursive nature of much contemporary social and cultural change.  particularly the language of the m media is scrutinized as a site of power, of struggle and also as a site where language is apparently transparent.  media institutions often purport to be neutral in that they provide space for public discourse, that they reflect states of affairs disinterestedly, and that they give the perceptions and arguments of the newsmakers.  fiarclaugh shows the fallacy of such umptions, and illustrates the mediating and constructing role of the media with a variety of examples.


van dijk’s earlier work in text linguistics and discourse analysis (1977, 1981) already shows the interest he takes in texts and discourses as basic units and social practices.  like other critical linguistic theorists, he traces the origins of linguistic interest in units of language larger than sentences and in text - and context-dependency of meanings. van dijk and kintsch (1983) considered the relevance of discourse to the study of language processing. their development of a cognitive model of discourse understanding in individuals, gradually developed into cognitive models for explaining the construction of meaning on a societal level. van dijk (1985) collected the work of a variety of scholars for whom language and how it functions in discourse is variously the primary object of research, or a tool in the investigation of other social phenomena. this is in a way a documentation of the ‘state of the art’ of critical linguistics in the mid 1980s.


 


van dijk turns specifically to media discourse, giving not only his own reflection on communication in the m media (van dijk, 1986), but also bringing together the theories and applications of a variety of scholars interested in the production, uses and functions of media discourses (van dijk, 1985). in critically analysing various kinds of discourses that encode prejudice, van dijk’s interest is in developing a theoretical model that will explain cognitive discourse processing mechanisms.  most recently  van dijk has focused on issues of racism and ideology (van dijk, 1998).


by the end of the 1980s critical linguistics was able to describe its aims, research interests, chosen perspective and methods of analysis much more specifically and rigidly than hitherto. wodak (1989) lists, explains and illustrates the most important characteristics of critical linguistic research as they had become established in continued research.  the relevance of investigating language use in institutional settings is reiterated, and a new focus on the necessity of a historical perspective is introduced (the discourse – historical approach). this was followed by a variety of research projects into discursive practices in institutional contexts that would ist in developing an integrated theory of critical discourse analysis.


statement of the subject: the fruitless study of language in isolation has led linguists to acknowledge the importance of considering social context in discourse analysis.  deacon et al. (1999 : 147-8) propose : “discourse conjoins language use as text and practices.  what we identify as ‘discourse’ and what we identify as ‘social’ are deeply intervened ... .  all talks, all texts, are social in nature.  language is not some transparent medium through which we see the world”. they make the point that “the moving to discourse analysis enabled linguistics to tackle the structures of whole texts, rather than just the sentences, words and parts of words taken in isolation which it had to a great extent concentrated on previously” (deacon et al., 1999 : 179). so, the analysis of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis of language in use and as such, it cannot be restricted to the description of linguistic forms independent of the purposes or functions which those forms are designed to serve in human affairs. 


critical discourse analysis which this research work is based upon, analyses social interactions in a way which sets out to show up their generally hidden determinants in the system of social relationship as well as hidden effects they may have upon that system.  critically study of language would place a broad conception of the social study of language at the core of language study.  critical discourse analysis regards ‘language as social practice’ (fairclough and wodak, 1997), and takes consideration of the context of language use to be crucial (wodak, 2000; benke, 2000).  moreover, critical discourse analysis takes a particular interest in the relation between language and power.


fairclough and wodak (1997) have put forward an eight-point programme to define critical discourse analysis as follows :



  1. critical discourse analysis addresses social problems.

  2. power relations are discursive.

  3. discourse constitutes society and culture.

  4. discourse does ideological work.

  5. discourse is historical.

  6. the link between text and society is mediated.

  7. discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory.

  8. discourse is a form of social action.


interpretation of text and discourse is, therefore, interpretation of socially determined language, and this means being involved in understanding the processes, functions and meanings of social interaction, and as birch (1989 : 153) claims, this means being involved in “politics of interaction”.  in this way the links between people and society are not arbitrary and accidental, but one institutionally determined.  critical language study aims to select and deconstruct these links and to understand the nature of language and society and their mutual effect on each other.  critical discourse analysis sees discourses as parts of social struggles, and contextualizes them in terms of broader (non-discoursal) struggles, and the effects of these struggles on structures.  it puts emphasis not only on the formal textual features of discourse but also on the social effects of discourse, on creativity, and on future.  on the other hand, through critical discourse analysis the analyst can show what power relationships determine discourses; these relationships are themselves the outcome of struggles, and are established (and, ideally, naturalized) by those with power.  it lays emphasis on the social determination of discourse, and on the past – on the results of past struggles.


the 7th presidential election in iran took place following a series of happenings which in fact was the aftermath of social forces in a broader competition between ideology and culture.   this event was a turning point in the history of iran because, for the first time two different discourse types, based on two different ideologies, faced and challenged with each other.  for the first time some slogans such as “civil society”, “liberalism”, “human rights”, “freedom of expression” etc. were brought up by the reformist party and these new concepts entered the current discourse of the society and somehow changed the social structure.  so in this research project critical discourse analysis will be used to describe the formal properties and features of these two discourses in iran; to interpret the relationship between texts and interaction; to explain the relationship between interaction and social context and their social effects; to explore the relationship between language and ideology; and to illustrate the relationship between language and society and discourse and social structure in iran.




tentative chapter division

chapter one: introduction contains the background of the study, statement of the subject, aims and objectives of the study, research methodology, data collection, primary and secondary sources of the study, significance of the study as well as limitations of the study.


chapter two : review of literature provides detailed definition of the concepts such as discourse, discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, etc. and gives a brief overview to the approaches to discourse analysis. then it proposes a systematic presentation of a procedure for critical discourse analysis. this chapter also sets out a view of the interrelationship of language and society, with the emphasis upon power and ideology.


         chapter three : discourse analysis of the reformist party. in this chapter a critical linguistic analysis will be adopted to analyse linguistic features of the electoral speeches, debates and interviews as well as electoral statements of the reformist party, and to investigate the ideology behind the discourse of this party, and to explore the relationship between their language and power.


          chapter four : discourse analysis of the conservative party brings into focus the formal textual features of the electoral statements, debates and speeches of the conservative party during the seventh presidential election in iran and explores their ideological structures.


chapter five : conclusions and suggestions summarizes that language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and shows the links between linguistic features of electoral written texts and social, political and ideological structures, relations and processes they belong to.


scheme of chapterization


chapter one       :        introduction


chapter two       :        review of literature



  1. definition of the concepts

  2. history of discourse analysis

  3. approaches to discourse analysis

  4. the relationship between language, power and ideology


chapter three     :        discourse analysis of the reformist party



  1. critical discourse analysis of electoral speeches

  2. critical discourse analysis of the electoral debates and interviews

  3. critical discourse analysis of the electoral statements


chapter four      :        discourse analysis of the conservative party



  1. critical discourse analysis of electoral speeches

  2. critical discourse analysis of the electoral debates and interviews

  3. critical discourse analysis of the electoral statements


chapter five       :        conclusions and suggestions

 


 ید


برچسب ها : discourse analysis of the written electoral materials from the 7th presidential election in iran , discourse , analysis of , the written , electoral , materials , from the 7th , presidential election in iran , پروژه , تحقیق , مقاله , جزوه , پژوهش , پروژه , تحقیق , مقاله , جزوه , پژوهش




the light between oceans 2016 با

کیفیت ۱۰۸۰p | bluray اضافه شد

دو زبانه اضافه شد

اطلاعات کامل : imdb

ژانر : درام | عاشقانه

امتیاز : ۷٫۲ از ۱۰ – میانگین رای ۱۱,۶۹۴ نفر

منتشر کننده : ترک موویز

کیفیت : ۷۲۰p | 1080p bluray

فرمت : mkv

حجم : ۷۵۰ | ۱۵۰۰ مگابایت

محصول : انگلستان | نیوزلند |

زبان : انگلیسی

کارگردان : derek cianfrance

بازیگران : michael f bender, alicia vikander, rachel weisz

خلاصه داستان : داستان درباره مردی به نام تام ( مایکل فاسباندر ) می باشد که در یک جزیره واقع در سواحل استرالیا نگهبان فانوس دریایی است و اتفاقات آن بخش از دریا را زیر نظر دارد. وی بزودی در این محل عاشق ایزابل ( آلیشیا ویکاندر ) می شود و در آن سو، ایزابل نیز دلباخته تام می شود تا عاشقانه ای دلنشین میان این دو شکل بگیرد…

storyline the light between oceans

a lighthouse keeper and his wife living off the coast of western australia raise a baby they rescue from a drifting rowing boat.

__________________________________________________________

با کیفیت ۷۲۰p bluray نسخه دوبله دو زبانه

با | اسکرین شات |

با کیفیت ۱۰۸۰p bluray

با | اسکرین شات |

با کیفیت ۷۲۰p bluray

با | اسکرین شات |

__________________________________________________________


the mountain between us 2017

رایگان the mountain between us 2017 با کیفیت 720

خارجی جدید 2017 در اس استاروی

نام : the mountain between us
ژانر : اکشن|ماجرایی| غم انگیز| هیجانی
زبان : انگلیسی
کیفیت : hd
فرمت : mp4
imdb
حجم : ۲۰ مگابایت
محصول :
ستارگان : idris elba, kate winslet, dermot mulroney, waleed zuaiter
کارگردان : hany abu-asad
خلاصه داستان : کوهستانی بین ما ، داستان دو غریبه را دنبال می کند که هواپیمای آنها در حادثه ای دل اش سقوط کرده است. این دو باید با یکدیگر همراه شوند تا از خطرات این کوهستان دورافتاده و پوشیده از برف جان سالم به در ببرند. اما…


the mountain between us 2017

sstarv اس استاروی خلاصه داستان the mountain between us 2017 رایگان the mountain between us 2017 the mountain between us 2017 جدید the mountain between us 2017


teaching sociology of religion from a marxist perspective

warren s. goldstein

center for critical research on religion

this reads more like a literature review than an actual syllabus. this is because a marxist approach to sociology of religion is still in the formative stage. it is my intention that people use this guide to find existing literature within the sociology of religion that fits with

a marxist perspective.

the sociology of religion has had several frameworks guiding its analysis including functionalism, interpretive sociology, phenomenology, symbolic interactionism and rational choice theory. absent from this list is a marxist, critical, or conflict approach, which while existing in many other subareas of sociology, has yet to establish itself as a paradigm in the sociology of religion. it has been umed that marxism as a school of thought has tended to ignore religion uming that it is something that would eventually disappear (beckford

1989:21-22). while this may be true for contemporary

marxism, cl ical marxism did pay considerable attention

to religion. marx argued “the criticism of religion is the

prerequisite of all criticism” (marx 1974 [1843-4]:243)- that before one can engage in an a critique of the material conditions, one must first engage in a critique of religion because this is what prevented people from objectively seeing material reality. while marx sought to purge the dialectic from its theological elements in his critique of hegel, idealistic components managed to sneak in (marx 1977 [1873]:103). part of marxism’s appeal was due to its retention of theological elements from hegel. however, if marxism is to continue developing as a social science, it must engage in a critique of itself either by purging

itself of theological elements or at least by being self- consciously aware of them.

cl ics

unlike max weber and emile durkheim, karl marx is not considered by most sociologists of religion to provide one of the foundations for the subdiscipline. marx’s writings

on religion are limited; they are found in his early works: “the critique of hegel’s philosophy of right,” “the

critique of hegel’s philosophy of right: an introduction,”

“on the jewish question,” and “theses on feuerbach.” later on, he focused almost exclusively on economics. however, marx together with engels and kautsky provide a significant foundation.

first, both marx and engels were influenced by the left-hegelian, ludwig feurbach who wrote the essence of christianity (1989 [1841]). aside from marx’s rather brief and well known “theses on feuerbach,” [1845] engels also wrote an essay entitled “ludwig feuerbach and the outcome

of cl ical german philosophy” (1941 [1888].

quite intriguing is the attention that cl ical

marxism paid to thomas münzer. münzer, a theologian, who agitated during the german peasant revolts of 1524-1525, outflanked martin luther to the left and was in conflict with him. whereas luther gained the support of the german princes in his struggle for autonomy against the roman catholic church, the peasants were in revolt not only against the church but the aristocracy, burning churches and castles. engels (1967 [1850]) describes this in his “the peasant war in germany.” karl kautsky takes up this theme again in communism in central europe in the time of

the reformation (1897 [1895]). kautsky provides a much more coherent explanation of the reformation than max weber. he argues that the motivation behind the reformation was economic- that indulgences were a means of foreign taxation and that the anabaptism in their rejection of infant

baptism were rejecting a national church. this is part of

a larger four volume work entitled vorläufer des neuren sozialismus (1921 [1895], which kautsky wrote the first two volumes and half of the third, in which he searches for the origins of communism and finds much of it in christianity. kautsky in foundations of christianity (1972 [1908])

engages in a historical materialist analysis of the emergence of christianity during the occupation of judea by the romans.

both weber and troetlsch need to be seen in historical

context. they were engaged with a debate with historical materialism arguing against economic determinism and for

the influence of religious ideas on social action. this is

revealed by ernst troeltsch (1992 [1912]) who spends the very beginnings of the social teachings of the christian churches arguing against kautksy’s economic determinism. troeltsch ([1912] 1992:39), argued that christainity was not the result of a “cl struggle.” he sees the

otherworldliness of christianity as a response to the loss of hope of judea under roman occupation (troeltsch [1912]

1992:48). weber’s ancient judaism (1952) like kautsky’s

foundations of christianity (1925) engages in a cl analysis of the bible. kautsky offers a very different interpretation of the reformation than weber. whereas parsons (1937) has interpreted weber (1930) as an idealist in the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, it is kautsky, in contrast who offers a historical materialist interpretation of the reformation.

troetlsch’s church-sect theory explain the differences between church and sect in cl terms.

the church both stabilizes and determines the social order; in so doing, however, she becomes dependent upon the upper cl es, and upon their development. the sects, on the other hand, are connected with the lower cl es, or at least with those elements in society which are opposed to the state and to society; they work upward from below, and now downwards from above (troeltsch [1912] 1992:331).

the basis of troeltsch’s church-sect theory is the

anabapitsts which were the first protestant sect.

randall collins (1994:81-81) categorizes weber as

having a conflict approach. this is true for his sociology of religion. in english translation, weber has of five books on religion: the protestant ethic, religions of

china, religions of india, ancient judaism, and sociology

of religion. coming out of the german tradition of kant, hegel, marx, and nietzsche, weber could not avoid making use of dialectics. this is most apparent in ancient judaism, the last book in his unfinished project the economic ethic of world religions. in it, not only is there a cl analysis of biblical history, but there is a dialectic between the charisma of the prophet and the tradition of the priest, between value rationality and substantive rationality (goldstein 2005).

while durkheim’s functionalism represents the paradigmatic opposite of a conflict approach, nevertheless in the elementary forms of religious life, he does describe the relationship between the sacred and profane as contradictory.

h. richard niebuhr who was a “christian socialist”, looked at denominational differences on the basis of cl ,

region, race, and ethnicity. niebuhr ([1929] 1987:29-30)

sees sects as religious movements which are cl based.

old paradigm

the old paradigm in sociology of religion categorizes those proponents of the theory of secularization

(dobbelaere 1981; tschannen 1991). the major approaches in the old paradigm are functionalists (talcott parsons,

robert bellah, and niklas luhmann) and phenomenologists

(peter berger and thomas luckmann). asides from this, members of the old paradigm can also be divided along durkheimian and weberian lines. while none of the members of the old paradigm are marxists, several of them use dialectical approaches. the german title of peter berger’s (1967) sacred canopy is zur dialektik von religion und gesellschaft (on the dialectic of religion and society). aside from using his phenomenological approach, berger in this early work shows the influence of marx. likewise, although robert bellah (1975:83) is a functionalist

directly under the influence of talcott parsons, in the

broken covenant, he has a dialectic of “revolution and constitution, conversion and covenant.” finally, of all the secularization theorists of the old paradigm, richard fenn (1978) most explicitly sees the process of secularization as occurring in a dialectical manner

new paradigm

what has been proclaimed as the new paradigm by r. stephen warner (1993) in the sociology of religion is actually an alliance between rational choice theorists (rodney stark, roger finke, laurence iannaconne) and symbolic interactionists (warner, mary jo neitz, and nancy ammerman). all of the members of the new paradigm dismiss the theory of secularization. the rise of the new paradigm coincides with the rise of the religious right. most of them have an uncritical perspective on religion and embrace religious revival seeing none of its negative consequences. sociologists of religion using a rational choice approach use a market model (religious economies) in analyzing religion. this approach, coming out of the university of chicago and using the term supply-side to describe itself, shares much in common with neo-conservativism. stark and finke (2000:154) draw off the church-sect theory of

reinhold niebuhr while dismissing his christian socialism.

however, they have whitewashed and sanitized it. stark and

bainbridge (1985) have dedialectized church-sect theory by turning it into a pendulum.

marxist and conflict approachs

while the number of those adhering to a marxist sociology of religion has been limited, the potential contributions of marx to the the sociology of religion should not be ignored (o’toole 1984:69). bryan turner (1991) in religion and social theory attempted to develop a marxist materialist sociology of religion.

conflict theory, as articulated by lewis coser (1956),

ralf dahrendorf (1959) and randall collins (1975), discusses the limitations of marxist theory rather than embracing it. what they point out is that conflict can occur along many different lines only one of which is cl conflict. in none of them is the conflict dialectical.

one of the other lines along which conflict can occur is religious conflict. religious conflict can take place

along cl lines but it can also take place along economic lines which are not necessarily those of cl (i.e. ethnicity, race, etc.).

although a conflict approach does not exist in the

sociology of religion, certain works contain the basis for one. james davison hunter (1991), robert wuthnow (1988) and wade clark roof and william mckinney (1987) describe a

religious divide in the united states. for wuthnow, in the restructuring of american religion, whereas the older division was between protestants, catholics and jews, the newer division is between religious liberals and religious conservatives. in the culture wars, james davison hunter describes alliances between evangelical protestants, conservative catholics, and orthodox jews, on the one hand, and progressive protestants, jews, and catholics on the other. roof and mckinney in american mainline religion

look at how the division takes place along the spectrum of denominations

the critical theory of religion

rudolf j. siebert (2001 [1985]) has coined the term a “critical theory of religion” and has been developing it for the last thirty years. he and his student michael ott

2001) are inspired by the later work of max horkheimer

(1978) who was director of the institute for social research (the frankfurt school). critical theorists and their ociates, max horkheimer, theodor w. adorno, walter

benjamin, ernst bloch and jürgen habermas can provide the framework for a critical sociology of religion.

walter benjamin and ernst bloch are unique in that

they mixed judeo-christian messianism with marxism. bloch (1918) first juxtaposed messianism with marxism in the spirit of utopia which was written during world war i. bloch’s most explicit mixture of messianism and marxism is contained in the section “karl marx, death, and the apocalypse.” bloch’s mixture of messianism and marxism continue in his early work thomas münzer, theologe der revolution (1921). in it, he discusses how münzer’s political revolution was guided by theological concepts. bloch’s work on münzer is based on engels and kautsky. whereas in his early work bloch mixes messianism and marxism, in his later writings, bloch develops a dialectical theory of secularization of judeo-christian messianism into marxism, which is based on a contradiction between the belief in god and man’s belief in himself.

whereas in his early work bloch mixes messianism and

marxism, in his later writings, bloch develops a dialectical theory of secularization of judeo-christian messianism into marxism, which is based on a contradiction between the belief in god and man’s belief in himself. in the principle of hope and atheism and christianity, bloch has a marxist sociology of religion. like kautsky, his approach is “to read the bible with the eyes of the communist manifesto” (bloch 1972:69).

walter benjamin, who was highly influenced by bloch,

like him mixed theological and materialist motifs in his essays on proust, kraus, kafka, and leskov. however, his most explicit mixture of messianism and marxism is contained in the last essay which he wrote shortly before his suicide while fleeing from the nazis, “on the concept of history.”

erich fromm (1950; 1960; 1963; 1966) and wilhelm reich

(1976) as marxists freudians have also engaged in analysis of religion. freud (1939, 1950) also engaged in a critique of religion arguing that it was a form of neurosis.

in the dialectic of enlightenment (1991), horkheimer

and adorno have a dialectic between myth and enlightenment, faith and reason, and reason and understanding, where enlightenment becomes a new myth. in adorno’s (1973

[1966]) late work, negative dialectics he sought to purge the dialectic of its theological elements.

in habermas’ (1992; 2002) recent work, he has focused on religion (see also habermas and ratzinger 2006).

warren s. goldstein (2001) analyzed the relationship between walter benjamin and ernst’s bloch mixture of judeo- christian messianism and marxism through their dialectical theories of secularization. a special issue of critical sociology (31/1-2) was devoted to the relationship between marxism and religion. the edited volume marx, critical theory, and religion: a critique of rational choice (goldstein 2006) establishes the critical theory of

religion as an alternative paradigm to rational choice.

others looking at religion through a critical or

marxist perspective include christopher brittain, kenneth mackendrick, andrew mckinnon, george lundskow, and roland boer (2007).

references

adorno, theodor w. 1973 [1966]. negative dialectics. new

york: continuum.

beckford, james. 1989. religion and a nced industrial

society. london: unwin hyman ltd.

bellah, robert n. 1975. the broken covenant: american civil religion in time of trial. chicago: the university of chicago press.

benjamin, walter. 1968. illuminations. new york: schocken

books.

berger, peter l. 1967. the sacred canopy: elements of a sociological theory of religion. new york: anchor books.

bloch, ernst. 1995. the principle of hope. 3 volumes.

bridge: mit press.

. 1972 [1968]. atheism in christianity: the religion

of the exodus and the kingdom. trans. j.t. swann, new

york: herder and herder.

. 1969 [1921]. thomas münzer als theologe der

revolution.

frankfurt am main: suhrkamp verlag.

. 1971 [1918] geist der utopie. erste f ung, frankfurt am main: suhrkamp verlag.

boer, roland. 2007. criticism of heaven: on marxism and

theology. leiden: brill.

collins, randall. 1994. four sociological traditions. new

york and oxford: oxford university press.

. 1975. conflict sociology: toward an

explanatory science. new york: academic press.

coser, lewis. 1956. the functions of social conflict. new

york: the free press.

dahrendorf, ralf. 1959. cl and cl conflict in industrial society. stanford: stanford university press.

dobbelaere, karel. 1981. secularization: a multi

-dimensional concept (current sociology volume 29

number 2). london: sage publications.

durkheim, emile. 1995. the elementary forms of religious

life. translated by karen e. fields. new york: the

free press.

engels, friedrich. 1967. the german revolutions: the

peasant war in germany and germany: revolution and counter-revolution. chicago: university of chicago press.

. 1941 [1888]. ludwig feuerbach and the outcome of

cl ical german philosophy. new york: international

publishers.

fenn, richard k. 1978. toward a theory of secularization.

storrs, connecticut: society for the scientific study of religion (monog h series number 11).

feuerbach, ludwig. 1989 [1841]. the essence of

christianity. translated by george eliot. amherst, ny:

prometheus books.

freud, sigmund. 1950. totem and taboo. new york: w. w.

norton.

. 1939. moses and monotheism. new york: vintage

books.

fromm, erich. 1966. you shall be as gods: a radical interpretation of the old testament and its tradition. new york, holt, rinehart and winston.

. 1963. the dogma of christ. new york: henry

holt and company.

. 1960. pscyhoanalysis and zen buddhism. boston:

unwin paperbacks.

. 1950. psychoanalysis and religion. new haven: yale

university press.

. 1989 [1922] das ju dische gesetz: zur soziologie des diaspora-judentums : dissertation von 1922 / erich fromm ; herausgegeben und bearbeitet von rainer funk und bernd sahler. weinheim : beltz.

goldstein, warren s., ed. 2006. marx, critical theory, and

religion: a critique of rational choice. leiden, nl: brill academic publishers.

. 2005. “the dialectics of religious rationalization and secularization: max weber and ernst bloch.” critical sociology 31/1-2:115-152.

. 2001. “messianism and marxism: walter

benjamin and ernst bloch’s dialectical theories of

secularization.” critical sociology 27/2: 246-281. habermas, jürgen. 2002. religion and rationality: essays on

reason, god, and modernity. bridge: mit press.

. 1992. postmetaphysical thinking: philosophical essays. bridge: mit press.

habermas, jürgen and joseph ratzinger. 2006. the dialectics of secularization: on reason and religion. san francisco: ignatius press.

horkheimer, max. 1978. dawn & decline notes 1926-1931 &

1950-1969. new york: seabury press.

horkheimer, max and theodor w. adorno. 1977. the dialectic

of enlightenment. new york: continuum.

hunter, james davidson. 1991. culture wars: the struggle to

define america, new york: basic books.

kautsky, karl. 1972 [1908]. foundations of christianity.

new york and london: monthly review press.

. 1966. [1897]. communism in central europe

in the time of the reformation. translated by j.l. and

e.g. mulliken. new york: augustus m. kelley

publishers.

. 1921 [1895]. vorläufer des neureren sozialismus.

4 volumes. stuttgart and berlin: j.h.w. dietz verlag. marx, karl. 1977 [1873]. “preface to the second edition” of

capital volume one. translated by ben fowkes. new

york: vintage books.

. 1974 [1843-4]. “a contribution to the critique

of hegel’s philosophy of right: an introduction” in early writings, translated by rodney livingstone and gregor benton. london: penguin books.

marx, karl and friechrich engels. 2008. on religion.

mineola, ny: dover publications

niehbuhr, h. richard. 1987 [1929] social sources of

denominationalism. gloucester, ma: peter smith. o’toole, roger. 1984. religion: cl ical sociological

approaches. toronto: mcgraw-hill ryerson.

ott, michael. 2001. max horkheimer’s critical theory of

religion. lanham, md: university press of america.

parsons, talcott. 1937. the structure of social action. new

york: free press.

roof, wade clark and william mckinney. 1987. american mainline religion: its changing shape and future. new brunswick: rutgers university press.

reich, wilhelm. 1976. the murder of christ. new york: the

noonday press.

siebert, rudolf j. 2001 [1985]. the critical theory of religion: the frankfurt school. lanham, md: scarecrow press.

. 1979. horkheimer’s critical sociology of religion: the relative and the transcendent. lewiston/queenston/lampeter: edwin mellen press.

stark, rodney and william sims bainbridge. 1985. the future of religion. berkeley: university of california

stark, rodney, and roger finke. 2000. acts of faith: explaining the human side of religion. berkekley: university of california press.

troeltsch, ernst. [1912] 1992. the social teaching of the christian churches. 2 volumes. louisville: westminster john knox press.

tschannen, oliver. 1991. "the secularization paradigm: a

systematization." journal for the scientific study of

religion 30: 395-415.

turner, bryan s. 1991. religion and social theory. london, thousand oaks, new delhi: sage publications.

warner, r. stephen. 1993. "work in progress toward a new paradigm for the sociological study of religion in the united states." american journal of sociology 98:

1044-93.

weber, max. 1996. the religion of india: the sociology of

hinduism and buddhism. translated by hans gerth and don martindale. new delhi: munshiram manoharlal publishers.

. 1963. the sociology of religion. translated by

ephraim fischoff. boston: beacon press.

. 1952. ancient judaism. translated by hans h. gerth and don martindale. new york: the free press.

. 1951. the religion of china. translated and edited by hans h. gerth. new york: the free press.

. 1930. the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. translated by talcott parsons. london and new york: routledge.

wuthnow, robert. 1988. the restructuring of american religion: society and faith since world war ii. princeton: princeton university press.


 



glossary of al terms

 

term

definition

a cappella -

one or more vocalists performing without an accompaniment.

accelerando -

a symbol used in al notation indicating to gradually quicken tempo.

accessible -

that is easy to listen to and understand.

adagio -

a tempo having slow movement; restful at ease.

allegro -

a direction to play lively and fast.

atonal -

that is written and performed without regard to any specific key.

baroque -

time in history ranging from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th centuries. characterized by emotional, flowery ; written in strict form.

beat -

the unit of al rhythm.

cadence -

a sequence of chords that brings an end to a phrase, either in the middle or the end of a composition.

cadenza -

initially an improvised cadence by a soloist; later becoming an elaborate and written out p age in an aria or concerto, featuring the skills of an instrumentalist or vocalist.

cadenza -

originally an improvised cadence by a soloist. later it be e a written out p age to display performance skills of an instrumentalist or performer.

canon -

a al form where the melody or tune is imitated by individual parts at regular intervals. the individual parts may enter at different measures and pitches. the tune may also be played at different speeds, backwards, or inverted.

cantabile -

a style of singing which is characterized by the easy and flowing tone of the composition.

cantata -

written for chorus and orchestra. most often religious in nature.

capriccio -

a quick, improvi ional, spirited piece of .

carol -

a song or hymn celebrating christmas.

castrato -

male singers who were castrated to preserve their alto and soprano vocal range.

cavatina -

a short and simple melody performed by a soloist that is part of a larger piece.

chamber -

written for 2 to 10 solo parts featuring one instrument to a part. each part bears the same importance.

chant -

singing in unison, texts in a free rhythm. similar to the rhythm of speech.

choir -

group of singers in a chorus.

chorale -

a hymn sung by the choir and congregation often in unison.

chord -

3 or 4 notes played simultaneously in harmony.

chord progression -

a string of chords played in succession.

chorus -

a group singing in unison.

chromatic scale -

includes all twelve notes of an octave.

cl ical -

the period of history which dates from the mid 1700’s to mid 1800’s. the was spare and emotionally reserved, especially when compared to romantic and boroque .

cl icism -

the period of history which dates from the mid 1800’s and lasted about sixty years. there was a strong regard for order and balance.

clavier -

the keyboard of a stringed instrument.

clef -

in sheet , a symbol at the beginning of the staff defining the pitch of the notes found in that particular staff.

coda -

closing section of a movement.

concert master -

the first violin in an orchestra.

concerto -

a composition written for a solo instrument. the soloist plays the melody while the orchestra plays the accompaniment.

conductor -

one who directs a group of performers. the conductor indicates the tempo, phrasing, dynamics, and style by gestures and facial expressions.

consonance -

groups of tones that are harmonious when sounded together as in a chord.

contralto -

lowest female singing voice.

counterpoint -

two or three melodic lines played at the same time.

courante -

a piece of written in triple time. also an old french dance.

da capo -

in sheet , an instruction to repeat the beginning of the piece before stopping on the final chord.

deceptive cadence -

a chord progression that seems to lead to resolving itself on the final chord; but does not.

development -

where the al themes and melodies are developed, written in sonata form.

dissonance -

harsh, discordant, and lack of harmony. also a chord that sounds incomplete until it resolves itself on a harmonious chord.

drone -

dull, monotonous tone such as a humming or buzzing sound. also a b note held under a melody.

duet -

a piece of written for two vocalists or instrumentalists.

dynamics -

pertaining to the loudness or softness of a al composition. also the symbols in sheet indicating volume.

elegy -

an instrumental lament with praise for the dead.

encore -

a piece of played at the end of a recital responding to the audiences enthusiastic reaction to the performance, shown by continuous applause.

energico -

a symbol in sheet a direction to play energetically.

enharmonic interval -

two notes that differ in name only. the notes occupy the same position. for example: c sharp and d flat.

ensemble -

the performance of either all instruments of an orchestra or voices in a chorus.

espressivo -

a direction to play expressively.

etude -

a al composition written solely to improve technique. often performed for artistic interest.

exposition -

the first section of a movement written in sonata form, introducing the melodies and themes.

expressionism -

atonal and violent style used as a means of evoking heightened emotions and states of mind.

falsetto -

a style of male singing where by partial use of the vocal chords, the voice is able to reach the pitch of a female.

fermata -

to hold a tone or rest held beyond the written value at the discretion of the performer.

fifth -

the interval between two notes. three whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.

finale -

movement or p age that concludes the al composition.

flat -

a symbol indicating that the note is to be diminished by one semitone.

form -

the structure of a piece of .

forte -

a symbol indicating to play loud.

fourth -

the interval between two notes. two whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.

fugue -

a composition written for three to six voices. beginning with the exposition, each voice enters at different times, creating counterpoint with one another.

galliard -

written for a lively french dance for two performers written in triple time.

gavotte -

a 17th century dance written in quadruple time, always beginning on the third beat of the measure.

glee -

vocal composition written for three or more solo parts, usually without instrumental accompaniment.

glissando -

sliding between two notes.

grandioso -

word to indicate that the movement or entire composition is to be played grandly.

grave -

word to indicate the movement or entire composition is to be played very slow and serious.

grazioso -

word to indicate the movement or entire composition is to be played gracefully.

gregorian chant -

singing or chanting in unison without strict rhythm. collected during the reign of pope gregory viii for psalms and other other parts of the church service.

harmony -

pleasing combination of two or three tones played together in the background while a melody is being played. harmony also refers to the study of chord progressions.

homophony -

written to be sung or played in unison.

hymn -

a song of praise and glorification. most often to honor god.

impromptu -

a short piano piece, often improvi ional and intimate in character.

instrumentation -

arran ent of for a combined number of instruments.

interlude -

piece of instrumental played between scenes in a play or opera.

intermezzo -

short movement or interlude connecting the main parts of the composition.

interpretation -

the expression the performer brings when playing his instrument.

interval -

the distance in pitch between two notes.

intonation -

the manner in which tones are produced with regard to pitch.

introduction -

the opening section of a piece of or movement.

key -

system of notes or tones based on and named after the key note.

key signature -

the flats and sharps at the beginning of each staff line indicating the key of the piece is to be played.

klangfarbenmelodie -

the technique of altering the tone color of a single note or al line by changing from one instrument to another in the middle of a note or line.

leading note -

the seventh note of the scale where there is a strong desire to resolve on the tonic.

legato -

word to indicate that the movement or entire composition is to be played smoothly.

leitmotif -

a al theme given to a particular idea or main character of an opera.

libretto -

a book of text containing the words of an opera.

ligature -

curved line connecting notes to be sung or played as a phrase.

madrigal -

a cont untal song written for at least three voices, usually without accompaniment.

maestro -

refers to any great composer, conductor, or teacher of .

major -

one of the two modes of the tonal system. written in major keys have a positive affirming character.

march -

a form of written for marching in two-step time. originally the march was used for military processions.

measure -

the unit of measure where the beats on the lines of the staff are divided up into two, three, four beats to a measure.

medley -

often used in overtures, a composition that uses p ages from other movements of the composition in its entirety.

mezzo -

the voice between soprano and alto. also, in sheet , a direction for the tempo to be played at medium speed.

minor -

one of the two modes of the tonal system. the minor mode can be identified by the dark, melancholic mood.

minuet -

slow and stately dance written in triple time.

modes -

either of the two octave arran ents in modern . the modes are either major or minor.

modulation -

to shift to another key.

monotone -

repetition of a single tone.

motif -

primary theme or subject that is developed.

movement -

a separate section of a larger composition.

musette -

a boroque dance with a drone-b .

ology -

the study of forms, history, science, and methods of .

natural -

a symbol in sheet that returns a note to its original pitch after it has been augmented or diminished.

neocl ical -

movement in where the characteristics are crisp and direct.

nocturne -

a al composition that has a romantic or dreamy character with nocturnal ociations.

nonet -

a composition written for nine instruments.

notation -

first developed in the 8th century, methods of writing .

obbligato -

an extended solo, often accompanying the vocal part of an aria.

octave -

eight full tones above the key note where the scale begins and ends.

octet -

a composition written for eight instruments.

opera -

a drama where the words are sung instead of spoken.

operetta -

a short light al drama.

opus -

convenient method of numbering a composer’s works where a number follows the word “opus”. for example, opus 28, no. 4.

oratorio -

an extended cantata on a sacred subject.

orchestra -

a large group of instrumentalists playing together.

orchestration -

arranging a piece of for an orchestra. also, the study of .

ornaments -

tones used to embellish the principal melodic tone.

ostinato -

a repeated phrase.

overture -

introduction to an opera or other large al work.

parody -

a composition based on previous work. a common technique used in medieval and renaissance .

part -

a line in a cont untal work performed by an individual voice or instrument.

partial -

a harmonic given off by a note when it is played.

partita -

suite of baroque dances.

pastoral -

a composition whose style is simple and idyllic; suggestive of rural scenes.

pentatonic scale -

a al scale having five notes. for example: the five black keys of a keyboard make up a pentatonic scale.

phrase -

a single line of played or sung. a al sentence.

piano -

an instruction in sheet to play softly. abbreviated by a “p”.

pitch -

the frequency of a note determining how high or low it sounds.

pizzicato -

string instruments that are picked instead of bowed.

polyphony -

combining a number of individual but harmonizing melodies. also known as counterpoint.

polytonality -

combination of two or more keys being played at the same time.

portamento -

a mild glissando between two notes for an expressive effect.

prelude -

a short piece originally preceded by a more substantial work, also an orchestral introduction to opera, however not lengthy enough to be considered an overture.

presto -

a direction in sheet indicating the tempo is to be very fast.

progression -

the movement of chords in succession.

quadrille -

a 19th century square dance written for 4 couples.

quartet -

a set of four ians who perform a composition written for four parts.

quintet -

a set of five ians who perform a composition written for five parts.

recapitulation -

a reprise.

recital -

a solo concert with or without accompaniment.

recitative -

a form of writing for vocals that is close to the manner of speech and is rhythmically free.

reed -

the piece of cane in wind instruments. the players cause vibrations by blowing through it in order to produce sound.

refrain -

a repeating phrase that is played at the end of each verse in the song.

register -

a portion of the range of the instrument or voice.

relative major and minor -

the major and minor keys that share the same notes in that key. for example: a minor shares the same note as c major.

relative pitch -

ability to determine the pitch of a note as it relates to the notes that precede and follow it.

renaissance -

a period in history dating from the 14th to 16th centuries. this period signified the rebirth of , art, and literature.

reprise -

to repeat a previous part of a composition generally after other has been played.

requiem -

a dirge, hymn, or al service for the repose of the dead.

resonance -

when several strings are tuned to harmonically related pitches, all strings vibrate when only one of the strings is struck.

rhythm -

the element of pertaining to time, played as a grouping of notes into accented and unaccented beats.

ricercar -

elaborate polyphonic composition of the boroque and renaissance periods.

rigaudon -

a quick 20th century dance written in double time.

rococo -

a al style characterized as excessive, ornamental, and trivial.

romantic -

a period in history during the 18th and early 19th centuries where the focus shifted from the neocl ical style to an emotional, expressive, and imaginative style.

rondo -

a al form where the principal theme is repeated several times. the rondo was often used for the final movements of cl ical sonata form works.

root -

the principal note of a triad.

round -

a canon where the melody is sung in two or more voices. after the first voice begins, the next voice starts singing after a couple of measures are played in the preceding voice. all parts repeat continuously.

rubato -

an important characteristic of the romantic period. it is a style where the strict tempo is temporarily abandoned for a more emotional tone.

scale -

successive notes of a key or mode either ascending or descending.

scherzo -

pertaining to the sonata form, a fast movement in triple time.

scordatura -

the retuning of a stringed instrument in order to play notes below the ordinary range of the instrument or to produce an usual tone color.

septet -

a set of seven ians who perform a composition written for seven parts.

sequence -

a successive transposition and repetition of a phrase at different pitches.

serenade -

a lighthearted piece, written in several movements, usually as background for a social function.

tet -

a set of six ians who perform a composition written for six parts.

sharp -

a symbol indicating the note is to be raised by one semitone.

slide -

a glissando or portamento. also refers to the moving part of a trombone.

slur -

a curve over notes to indicate that a phrase is to be played legato.

sonata -

of a particular form consisting of four movements. each of the movements differ in tempo, rhythm, and melody; but are held together by subject and style.

sonata form -

a complex piece of . usually the first movement of the piece serving as the exposition, a development, or recapitulation.

sonatina -

a short or brief sonata.

song cycle -

a sequence of songs, perhaps on a single theme, or with texts by one poet, or having continuos narrative.

soprano -

the highest female voice.

staccato -

short detached notes, as opposed to legato.

staff -

made up of five horizontal parallel lines and the spaces between them on which al notation is written.

stretto -

pertaining to the fugue, the overlapping of the same theme or motif by two or more voices a few beats apart.

string quartet -

a group of 4 instruments, two violins, a viola, and cello.

suite -

a loose collection of instrumental compositions.

symphony -

three to four movement orchestral piece, generally in sonata form.

system -

a combination of two or more staves on which all the notes are vertically aligned and performed simultaneously in differing registers and instruments.

tablature -

a system of notation for stringed instruments. the notes are indicated by the finger positions.

temperament -

refers to the tuning of an instrument.

tempo -

indicating speed.

tessitura -

the range of an instrumental or a vocal part.

theme -

a melodic or, sometimes a harmonic idea presented in a al form.

timbre -

tone color, quality of sound that distinguishes one verse or instrument to another. it is determined by the harmonies of sound.

time signature -

a numeric symbol in sheet determining the number of beats to a measure.

tonal -

pertains to tone or tones.

tonality -

the tonal characteristics determined by the relationship of the notes to the tone.

tone -

the intonation, pitch, and modulation of a composition expressing the meaning, feeling, or attitude of the .

tone less -

un al, without tone.

tonic -

the first tone of a scale also known as a keynote.

treble -

the playing or singing the upper half of the vocal range. also the highest voice in choral singing.

tremolo -

quick repetition of the same note or the id alternation between two notes.

triad -

three note chords consisting of a root, third, and fifth.

trill -

id alternation between notes that are a half tone or whole tone apart.

trio -

a composition written for three voices and instruments performed by three
persons.

triple time -

time signature with three beats to the measure.

triplet -

three notes played in the same amount of time as one or two beats.

tritone -

a chord comprised of three whole tones resulting in an augmented fourth or diminished fifth.

tune -

a rhythmic succession of al tones, a melody for instruments and voices.

tuning -

the raising and lowering a pitch of an instrument to produce the correct tone of a note.

tutti -

p age for the entire ensemble or orchestra without a soloist.

twelve-tone -

composed such that each note is used the same number of times.

unison -

two or more voices or instruments playing the same note simultaneously.

verismo -

a form of italian opera beginning at the end of the 19th century. the setting is contemporary to the composer’s own time, and the characters are modeled after every day life.

vibrato -

creating variation pitch in a note by quickly alternating between notes.

virtuoso -

a person with notable technical skill in the performance of .

vivace -

direction to performer to play a composition in a brisk, lively, and spirited manner.

voice -

one of two or more parts in polyphonic . voice refers to instrumental parts as well as the singing voice.

waltz -

a dance written in triple time, where the accent falls on the first beat of each measure.

whole note -

a whole note is equal to 2 half notes, 4 quarter notes, 8 eighth notes, etc.

whole-tone scale -

a scale consisting of only whole-tone notes. such a scale consists of only 6 notes.

 

http://www.cl icalworks.com/html/glossary.html

 


extracellular vesicles-it’s gdna content as an additional biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and mana ent of pca

edited by:mohammad hezarkhani md,urologist

board-certified of urology,tehran university ,the member of iranian urological ociation

madaen hospital tehran iran

tehranclinic hospital tehran iran

mohammad.hezarkhani@yahoo.com

www.hezarkhani. hosted in washington dc, united states

august 29. 2014

extracellular vesicles (evs) are heterogeneous populations of membrane vesicles released by cells into their microenvironment and blood circulation. evs are important mediators of intercellular communication and disease progression, and they are considered to play a fundamental role in many physiological and pathological processes.

evs are considered to play a key role in cell-to-cell communication since they may transfer the genetic cargo of their parental cells, and thus modulate the biological functions of their recipient cells. it is known that evs contain proteins, lipids, mrna and microrna fragments but the presence of dna has not been systematically reported so far.

presently, a broad consensus cl ifies evs into three main cl es based on the differences in their size, formation mechanism, and content. apoptotic bodies (abs) are the largest evs, with a size range of 1–4 µm. they are released by all cell types during the late stages of apoptosis. it is widely known that abs contain nuclear material from the dying cells, being able to participate in the horizontal transfer of oncogenes. microparticles or microvesicles (mvs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles defined as 0.2–1.0 µm in size, which are formed by outward shedding of the plasma membrane.

exosomes (exos) are the smallest membranous vesicles, between 40 and 100 nm in diameter. they are first secreted into the endosome-derived multivesicular bodies and then liberated by the fusion of the multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

functions of cell-derived vesicles

a. intercellular signaling

to summarize and present the extensive literature on exosome-mediated signaling, we have decided to review their functions and processes rather than the cl es of molecules involved. as it is increasingly unclear what type of vesicles has been investigated in many studies, we will use the term as mentioned in the original work unless indicated otherwise.

1. immune suppression.

by transporting ligands and receptors ,exosomes can orchestrate cell growth and development, and modulate the immune system. activated t cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells release vesicles exposing fas ligand (fasl), a death receptor ligand, suggesting that these vesicles play a role in cell death during immune regulation ,these vesicles are likely to be exosomes because fasl is stored in mves in t cells .the sorting of fasl to mves and exosomes is regulated by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination ,and the secretion of fasl-exposing exosomes is mediated by diacylglycerol kinase-α .int ritoneal injection of fasl-exposing exosomes triggers apoptosis of macrophages in vivo .

the ability of vesicles to modulate the immune response is likely to play a role in normal growth and development. for instance, the invading trophoblast is a semiallograft and should in theory be rejected by the mother as “foreign” material. during normal pregnancy, the trophoblast evades the maternal immune system by killing activated t cells that have been sensitized to paternal alloantigens. first-trimester trophoblast cells release exosomes exposing fasl, which are capable of inducing fas-mediated t-cell death, suggesting that exosomes contribute to this immune privilege .because sera from pregnant women exhibit higher levels of fasl- ociated with exosomes at term compared with preterm, it is thought that immune suppression by exosomes may contribute to normal pregnancy and delivery .placenta-derived exosomes also expose several ligands of the natural killer (nk) cell receptor nkg2d, ul-16 binding proteins 1–5, and major histocompatibility complex (mhc) cl i chain-related protein, which all down-regulate nkg2d on nk cells, cd8+ cells, and γδ t cells, thereby all potentially contributing to fetal immune escape .

the ability of exosomes to mediate cell killing at a distance is also used by tumor cells to evade the immune system. fasl is present in mves of melanoma cells and a prostate cancer cell line, and fasl-exposing vesicles from these tumor cells kill jurkat t cells in vitro. therefore, tumor-derived vesicles may provide an important front-line defense mechanism by inhibiting the homing and antitumor activity of immunocompetent cells. in addition, epithelial ovarian cancer cells from ascites release fasl-exposing microvesicles that are capable of inducing t-cell apoptosis .likewise, fasl-exposing microvesicles isolated from sera of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma induce t-cell apoptosis, and in these patients, there is a correlation between the microvesicle- ociated levels of fasl and tumor burden, suggesting that vesicle-mediated immune suppression (indirectly) promotes tumor growth and development in vivo .fasl is not the only mediator of tumor-induced suppression of the immune system, because exosomes from human tumor cell lines and mouse mammary tumor cells inhibit (interleukin-2-induced) proliferation of nk cells, illustrating that tumor-derived exosomes suppress the cytotoxic response to tumor cells .

the loss of nkg2d, an activating receptor for nk, nkt, cd8+, and γδ+ t cells, in cancer is also one of the key mechanisms of immune evasion. exosomes from cancer cell lines or isolated from pleural effusion of patients with mesothelioma down-regulate nkg2d expression of nk cells and cd8+ cells via a transforming growth factor (tgf)-β-dependent mechanism, indicating that nkg2d may be one of the targets for exosome-mediated immune evasion .in addition, the high incidence of relapse and fatal outcome in many blood malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma has been ociated with the expression of several nkg2d ligands on exosomes .alternatively, differentiation of myeloid cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells, immature myeloid cells that have the ability to suppress t-cell activation and thereby promote tumor progression, induce the expression of tgf-β and prostacyclin e2 within tumor-derived exosomes .in another study, tumor-derived exosomes from mouse cell lines were shown to inhibit immune surveillance by binding to myeloid-derived suppressor cells, thereby increasing the immune suppressive activity of these cells. this interaction was mediated by the exposure of hsp72 on exosomes. further evidence that tumor-derived exosomes contribute to immune suppression in vivo comes from the observation that inhibition of exosome production by a drug to treat high blood pressure, dimethyl amiloride, enhances the antitumor efficacy of the chemothe utic drug cyclophosphamide in mouse tumor models .finally, local immune responses are inhibited by high levels of extracellular adenosine, which prevent t-cell activation. exosomes from several cancer cell lines expose potent atp and 5′amp-phosphohydrolytic activity, thereby contributing to locally high concentration of adenosine. exosomes from pleural effusion of patients with mesothelioma contained 20% of the total atp-hydrolytic activity, indicating that exosomes may contribute to inhibition of t cells in the tumor environment by this mechanism .taken together, exosomes are likely to orchestrate the efficacy of the immune system by a whole set of different mechanisms important not only for normal development but also for tumor development.

besides healthy and tumor cells, viruses and parasites exploit the ability of exosomes to kill immune cells at a distance to evade the immune system. the latent membrane protein-1 (lmp-1) of epstein-barr virus (ebv), which is exposed on exosomes from ebv-infected cells, inhibits the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this mechanism is thought to be relevant in development of ebv- ociated tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and hodgkin's disease, by allowing tumor cells to evade the immune system .cells infected with the intracellular parasite leishmania donovani secrete exosomes that contain and deliver parasite proteins to host target cells, and suppress the immune response by preventing the activation of human monocytes .exosomes from plasma of mice immunized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin specifically suppress a keyhole limpet hemocyanin delayed-type hypersensitivity inflammatory response, which is partially dependent on exosomal fasl .

although considerable evidence thus suggests that cell-derived vesicles are involved in immune suppression, there are also studies showing that exosomes may exhibit opposing activity or do not contribute to suppression. for example, exosomes from synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis patients expose tnf- α, which delays t-cell activation-induced cell death and thus contributes to apoptosis resistance .in addition, soluble factors but not the microvesicles from patients with non–small-cell lung carcinoma (nsclc) were shown to induce t-cell apoptosis .furthermore, exosomes from human pancreatic tumor cells inhibit tumor progression by counteracting constitutively active survival pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis of tumor cells rather than apoptosis of immune cells .in sum, the exact role and contribution of microvesicles or exosomes to immune suppression depends on the models studied and is likely to be complex.

2. antigen presentation.

vesicles are used by cells not only to suppress the immune system but also to present antigens .for example, intestinal epithelial cells endocytose dietary proteins, and serum obtained from mice fed with a particular protein can suppress hypersensitivity reactions when this serum is administered to other mice before exposure to this protein. processing of the antigen in the gut is required to achieve oral (immune) tolerance via serum transfer. although the true nature of the “tolerogen” in serum is unknown, exosomes are likely candidate tolerogens, because human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells release exosomes exposing mhc cl i and mhc cl ii molecules at both the apical and basolateral sides, suggesting a possible involvement of exosomes in the transcellular transport of antigens from the lumen of the gut to immune cells .to test the ability of vesicles to deliver “transcellular information” to the immune system in vivo, mice received peritoneal injection with exosomes from epithelial cells that had been incubated with pepsin/trypsin ovalbumin hydroly e (hova) to mimic luminal digestion. exosomes from intestinal epithelial cells treated with hova and interferon-γ, which is added to increase the secretion of exosomes ,expose abundant mhc-cl ii/ova complexes. these exosomes, however, induce a specific humoral immune response in vivo, suggesting that these exosomes trigger an immunogenic rather than a tolerogenic response .because these exosomes preferentially interact with dendritic cells (dcs), they can strongly facilitate antigen presentation to t cells, thereby providing luminal antigenic information to local immune cells and thus facilitating immune surveillance at mucosal surfaces .

in a mouse model of allergic asthma, serum or isolated exosomes from serum of donor mice fed with ovalbumin were transferred to mice followed by intranasal exposure to ovalbumin. mice receiving serum or isolated exosomes from ovalbumin-fed mice showed tolerance to ovalbumin exposure, because these mice had a reduced concentration of airway eosinophils, lower serum levels of total ige and ovalbumin-specific ige, and an increased concentration of activated t cells with a regulatory phenotypethan control animals. thus, exosomes have the ability to prevent allergic sensitization .

exosomes, isolated from conditioned medium of b-cell lines originating from patients with birch pollen allergy and loaded with t-cell-activating peptides from a major birch allergen, induce a dose-dependent t-cell proliferation and increase the production of interleukin 5 and 13 by t cells, indicating that b-cell exosomes may contribute to and worsen allergic immune responses .in contrast, exosomes from bal fluid of mice exposed to an olive pollen allergen inhibit the ige response, cytokine production, and airway inflammation, all signs of allergy, upon exposure to the allergen, showing that these exosomes induce tolerance rather than allergic immune responses .

the initiation of t-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses requires uptake, processing, and presentation of tumor antigens by dcs. exosomes from mouse tumor cells transfer tumor antigens to dcs in vitro. the binding of these intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (i -1)-exposing exosomes to dcs, which express lymphocyte function- ociated antigen-1 (lfa-1) and macrophage 1-antigen as the two major ligands of i -1, is mediated only by lfa-1. because both mature (cd8+) and immature (cd8) dcs expose lfa-1, it has been suggested that the interaction between i -1 and lfa-1 plays a role in the exosome-mediated transfer of antigens to dcs .after binding and uptake of tumor-derived exosomes, dcs are capable of inducing cd8+ t cell-mediated antitumor effects on established mouse tumors in vivo, indicating that tumor-derived exosomes can present tumor antigens to elicit an antitumor immune response .

after uptake of antigens, dcs also secrete exosomes that expose both mhc complexes and t-cell costimulatory molecules. although an antigen-specific cd4+ t cell activation is induced by injection of antigen- or peptide-exposing exosomes from dcs in vivo, this response only occurs in the presence of mature dcs in vitro, suggesting that the exchange of functional peptide-mhc complexes between (subsets of) dcs by dc-derived exosomes may be a prerequisite to induce an efficient and antigen-specific t-cell response in vivo. as such, this exosome-mediated mechanism may amplify the initiation of the primary adaptive immune response. indeed, dc-derived exosomes transfer functional mhc cl i/peptide complexes to other dcs, but the presence of mature dcs is essential to efficiently prime cytotoxic t cells in vivo.

mature dcs express mhc cl ii to present peptide antigens to t cells. immature dcs, however, have only low surface levels of mhc cl ii because the peptide-loaded mhc cl ii complexes are ubiquitinated and predestined for lysosomal degradation. activation of immature dcs inhibits ubiquitination of the mhc cl ii-antigen complexes, which results in an increased cell surface exposure of these complexes. in turn, exosomes exposing mhc cl ii-antigen complexes are secreted from antigen-loaded dcs when these cells contact antigen-specific cd4+ t cells. this secretion is preceded by accumulation of intraluminal vesicles exposing both mhc cl ii and cd9 in mves. the sorting of mhc cl ii molecules to these intraluminal vesicles requires incorporation into cd9-containing detergent-resistant membrane domains but is independent of ubiquitination, indicating that different intracellular pathways exist for trafficking of mves predestined for either lysosomal degradation or secretion .it should be pointed out that exosomes from dcs may also be internalized by epithelial cells, which will then produce and release cytokines and chemokines. thus, exosomes from dcs play a role not only in adaptive immunity but also in innate immunity .

exosomes may also present antigens from microorganisms and allergens. toxoplasma gondii can cause severe sequelae in fetuses of mothers who acquire infection during pregnancy as well as life-threatening neuropathy in immunocompromised patients. exosomes from a mouse dc cell line incubated with t. gondii-derived antigens trigger a strong systemic humoral immune response in vivo and conferred good protection against infection, suggesting that dc-derived exosomes can be used for immunoprophylaxis. exosomes produced by dcs loaded with protozoan parasite leishmania major antigens provide an effective vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis ,and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis primes macrophages to release increased numbers of exosomes and microvesicles exposingm. tuberculosis peptide-mhc cl ii complexes and hsp70 that enhance antimicrobial t-cell responses. finally, intramuscular immunization of chickens with exosomes from dcs incubated with eimeria tenella (avian coccidiosis) antigens induces protective immunity against avian coccidiosis. in these examples, presentation of antigens by exosomes induces immune tolerance rather than immune responses. taken together, presentation of antigens by exosomes affects the immune response at various levels in vitro as well as in vivo. nevertheless, although exosomes are involved in presentation of specific antigens, they may also play other roles in host defense, for instance, exosomes from human tracheobronchial epithelial cells expose epithelial mucins that immobilize human influenza virus by binding viral α-2,6-linked sialic acid .

3. transfer of signaling components.

cell-derived vesicles also play a role in the intercellular exchange of signaling components. treatment of microvesicles from platelets and erythrocytes with nonpancreatic secretory phospholipase a2, which is inactive toward whole cells, generates lysophosphatidic acid, which in turn triggers platelet aggregation. because secretory phospholipase a2 and lysophosphatidic acid-containing microvesicles are both present in synovial fluid of inflamed joints, the formation of lysophosphatidic acid is likely to occur in vivo .likewise, treatment of microparticles from activated platelets with secretory phospholipase a2 produces intravesicular arachidonic acid, which is transferred and then metabolized by platelets to thromboxane a2 by cyclooxygenase-1, and by endothelial cells to prostacylin by cyclooxygenase-2 .the ability of platelet microparticles to increase adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is due to the presence of intravesicular arachidonic acid .vesicles can evidently transfer lipids between cells for further metabolization, and thus lipid transfer may play a role in atherosclerosis and inflammation.

an elegant example of vesicle-mediated transfer of other signaling elements comes from studies on progesterone-induced ca2+ signals, which play a key role in sperm motility. the progesterone-induced ca2+ signals require fusion with prostasomes, which transfer progesterone receptors, cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose-synthesizing enzymes, ryanodine receptors, and other ca2+-signaling tools to the sperm. inhibition of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose-synthesizing enzymes or depletion of ryanodine receptors from prostasomes reduces sperm motility and fertilization rates, showing that sperm motility and fertilization may depend on the acquisition of ca2+-signaling tools from prostasomes .

another example comes from the wnt-signaling pathway in dcs. the wnt pathway plays an important role in both normal development and cancer. wnt signaling activity, however, is suppressed by secretion of β-catenin in exosomes, revealing that exosomal packaging and release of cytosolic proteins can affect cellular signaling pathways .exosomes can also contain proteins involved in the apoptotic signaling pathway. for instance, survivin, an inhibitor of caspase activation that promotes proliferation, survival and tumor cell invasion, is also secreted by exosomes .thus, it is clear that cells can exchange functional signaling components between cells.

4. inflammation.

cell-derived vesicles can trigger the production of tissue factor (tf) and proinflammatory cytokines by activating target cells for instance, microparticles from n-formyl-met-leu-phe-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) activate endothelial cells by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of the 46-kda c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk) 1. this activation results in expression and production of tf and interleukin-6. because these vesicles, called “ectosomes,” are released at sites of inflammation in vitro and in vivo and expose the complement receptor 1 required for binding to opsonized bacteria, these vesicles have been suggested to represent an “ecto-organelle” designed to focus antimicrobial activity onto opsonized surfaces .on the other hand, the effects of microparticles from pmns may be strongly cell-type-dependent, because human macrophages are inhibited upon incubation with pmn-derived microparticles, resulting in production of tgf-β and inhibition of the inflammatory response of macrophages to zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (lps). this inhibition requires binding of microparticles to macrophages but is independent from their phagocytosis. furthermore, pmn-derived microparticles contain the anti-inflammatory protein annexin-1, and intravenous delivery of these microparticles blocks recruitment of pmn in an inflammatory model in an annexin-1-dependent mechanism in vivo, suggesting that pmn-derived microparticles may have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties at sites of inflammation .

cell-derived vesicles have the ability to affect inflammation by transferring transport receptors and inflammatory mediators. microvesicles or exosomes are a major pathway for fast secretion of interleukin 1β, which lacks a signal peptide. interleukin 1β was recently shown to be one of the key mediators within microparticles from monocytes, together with other components of the inflammasome, responsible for activation of endothelial cells .likewise, mouse macrophages, stimulated with atp, release exosomes with ent ped interleukin-1β, caspase-1 and other components of the inflammasome .in addition, microvesicles from p2x7 receptor-stimulated mature dcs contain interleukin-1β .furthermore, microparticles contain platelet-activating factor and can expose the soluble (non–cell-bound) but full-length 55-kda form of tnf receptor 1, which is also found in human serum and lung epithelial lining fluid .

proteins are not the only biologically active component of vesicles that play a role in inflammatory responses, because the lipid fraction of microvesicles activates macrophage toll like receptor (tlr) 4. because the ability of these microparticles to activate tlr4 is impaired by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase d, which does not affect the release of microvesicles but inhibits hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, this further supports the lipid nature of the active component .in addition, exosomes from dcs and macrophages, and microvesicles from human plasma, contain functional enzymes for synthesis of leukotrienes, which are potent lipid inflammatory mediators .

the ability of vesicles to modulate the inflammatory response is not limited to blood. autologous vesicles from synovial fluid and microparticles from t cells, monocytes, and platelets trigger the production and release of interleukins 6 and 8, matrix metalloproteases, monocyte-chemotactic proteins 1 and 2, vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), and i -1 by synovial fibroblasts, indicating that these vesicles enhance the destructive activity of these fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. one of the mechanisms by which microparticles activate synovial fibroblasts is transfer of arachidonic acid from leukocytes to synovial fibroblasts via microparticles .furthermore, synovial microparticles expose tf and are extremely procoagulant, which could explain the presence of fibrin deposition within inflamed joints. in addition, microparticles from human airway epithelial cells stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators, thereby possibly enhancing the inflammatory airway response .

peripheral blood of patients with preeclampsia contains elevated concentrations of placenta-derived vesicles compared with normal pregnancy. these vesicles, often called syncytiotrophoblast microparticles, bind to monocytes and the endothelium, thereby triggering the production of proinflammatory mediators. this suggests that syncytiotrophoblast microparticles contribute to the increased systemic inflammatory responsiveness in preeclampsia.

microparticles from human atherosclerotic plaques have been shown to mediate the functional transfer of i -1 to endothelial cells, thereby promoting the adhesion of monocytes and trans-endothelial migration. the transfer of i -1 from microparticles to endothelial cells results in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 after i -1 ligation .thus, plaque mps may further facilitate atherosclerotic plaque progression.

exosome-like vesicles released from adipose tissue are taken up by peripheral blood monocytes after intravenous injection, which then differentiate into macrophages producing increased levels of tnf-α and interleukin-6. injection of these vesicles into wild-type c57bl/6 mice results in development of insulin resistance, whereas injection into tlr-4 knockout b6 mice results in much lower levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, pointing to a role for tlr4 in the induction of inflammatory mediators by exosome-like vesicles from adipose tissue. evidently, exosomes and other vesicles can influence the inflammatory response in several ways.

5. tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis.

exosomes can transfer the metastatic activity of highly metastatic bl6–10 melanoma tumor cells to poorly metastatic f1 melanoma tumor cells in vitro. mice develop lung metastatic colonies when f1 cells are injected together with exosomes from bl6–10 exosomes, whereas mice injected solely with f1 cells develop no metastatic colonies .the ability of exosomes to promote metastasis and angiogenesis can be increased when exosomes are released under hypoxic conditions (i.e., conditions that many tumors encounter when growing) .

one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the intercellular transfer of metastatic activity is the transfer of an oncogenic growth factor receptor or their ligand .the truncated form of the egfr viii is transferred from glioma cancer cells by microvesicles to glioma cells lacking this receptor, in a mechanism involving detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid rafts). the transferred receptor is fully functional and results in a full transfer of the oncogenic activity, including activation of the transforming signaling pathways (mitogen-activated protein kinase, akt), changes in expression of egfrviii-regulated genes (vegf, bcl-xl, p27), morphological transformation, and increase in anchorage-independent cell growth capacity. on the other hand, human breast and colorectal cancer cells release exosomes containing full-length, signaling-competent egfr ligands, and the invasive potential of colon cancer cell lines is related to the concentration of exosomes containing amphiregulin, one of the egfr ligands, suggesting that ligand exchange contributes to cancer invasiveness and metastasis .

vesicles can also contribute to tumor growth and development via several other mechanisms. for instance, cancer cells can release vesicles containing the fas- ociated death domain, a key adaptor protein that transmits apoptotic signals and becomes lost in many cancer cells .in

addition, exosomes may protect tumor cells from entering or accumulation of antitumor drugs, thereby possibly contributing to (multi)drug resistance. for instance, exosomes from her2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines, or exosomes present in serum from patients with breast cancer, capture the humanized antibody trastuzumab, thereby reducing the effective concentration of this anticancer drug .vesicles may also contribute to drug resistance by exchanging drug transporters between cells. one of the most important drug transporters is p-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein and member of the atp binding c ette superfamily, which can be exchanged between cells via vesicles .p-glycoprotein, a key protein involved in multidrug resistance, is widely expressed at pharmacological interfaces such as the blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, and along the gastrointestinal track (where the influx of carcinogens and harmful chemicals is prevented). overexpression of p-glycoprotein by cancer cells correlates with anticancer drug failure in many types of cancer. there is also evidence that drugs are sorted, concentrated, and removed from cells via secretion of exosomes (e.g., cisplatin in drug-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells) .

vesicles can also promote vascular development, which is highly relevant for tumor growth. for instance, notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in vascular development and angiogenesis. δ-like 4 (dll4) is a notch ligand that is up-regulated during angiogenesis by endothelial cells and regulates the differentiation between tip cells and stalk cells of the neovasculature. dll4 is incorporated into exosomes of endothelial cells and tumor cells, and it can be transferred to endothelial cells, where it is incorporated into the plasma membrane. once incorporated, dll4 inhibits notch signaling and induces the loss of notch receptor, which results in a tip cell phenotype and increases branch formation of vessels .

there are other ways in which vesicles promote tumor growth, including the release of active matrix-degrading enzymes ,stimulation of angiogenesis (taverna et al., 2011), and production of tf ,but these mechanisms have been summarized excellently elsewhere

6. morphogens.

the morphogen wnt is important in development of the mature nervous system. wnt is transported in vesicles across synapses in drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junctions .however, the transport of morphogens is not limited to d. melanogaster; it also occurs in higher organisms. for instance, microvesicles from t cells or human blood contain functional hedgehog proteins, which play a role in development, and these vesicles are capable of inducing differentiation of pluripotent erythroleukemic cells in vitro .

7. genetic information.

bacteria exchange genetic information via outer membrane vesicles .in 2007, it was described that eukaryotic cells can exchange functional genetic information by vesicles as well .exosomes from mouse and human mast cell lines as well as exosomes from primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells were shown to contain mrna and mirna .the mrna of approximately 1300 genes was detectable, many of which were below the detection limit in the cytoplasm of the donor cells. in vitro translation showed that mrna could be translated, and transfer of mouse exosomal rna to human mast cells induces expression of mouse proteins. thus, exosomes have the capacity to facilitate the intercellular exchange of functional genetic information. exosomes from t cells transfer mirna to antigen-presenting cells ,and exosomes from dcs contain different mirnas depending on the maturation stage of the dcs. fusion of these exosomes with acceptor dcs results in the transfer of functional mirnas,as shown by the reduced expression of target mrna. thus, intercellular exchange of mirnas by vesicles can affect post-transcriptional regulation .in addition, exosomes from glioblastoma cells transfer functional mrna, mirna, and angiogenic proteins to brain microvascular endothelial cells, thus stimulating tubule formation and proliferation of glioma cells .several mrnas and mirnas characteristic of gliomas were detected in some but not all sera of patients with glioblastoma, suggesting that exosomes contain diagnostic information. likewise, microvesicles from a colorectal cancer cell line contain mrna, including 27 mrnas encoding cell-cycle related proteins. these exosomes triggered proliferation of endothelial cells, again confirming that vesicles can induce angiogenesis and thus promote tumor growth and metastasis .

exosomes from astrocytes and glioblastoma cells also contain mitochondrial dna ,and microvesicles from several tumors and tumor cell lines have been shown to contain elevated levels of specific coding as well as noncoding rna and dna, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences, and transposable elements .in addition, serum-derived exosomes from tumor-bearing mice contain the amplified oncogene c-myc, suggesting that the genetic information in tumor-derived vesicles can potentially be a unique tumor biomarker .it is to be expected that vesicles in biological fluids will contain genetic information, and therefore it is not surprising that exosomes from, for example, human saliva, plasma, and milk all contain detectable levels of rna, including mrna .

pathogens have “hijacked” cell-derived vesicles as a transport vehicle to exchange genetic information between cells without the risk of being recognized by the immune system. exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells harboring latent ebv contain viral mirnas, some of which are enriched compared with intracellular levels. this increased concentration of viral mirnas may help to manipulate the tumor microenvironment to influence the growth of neighboring cells .in addition, human herpes virus 4 or ebv encodes mirnas that can be transferred from infected to uninfected cells by exosomes. again, transferred mirnas are functional because they down-regulate target gene expression in recipient cells. the mirna-mediated gene silencing is a potentially important mechanism of intercellular communication. several components of rna-induced silencing complexes are present in exosomes, suggesting that this complex may be involved in the sorting of mirnas into exosomes .taken together, the role of vesicles in the exchange of functional genetic information between cells is not limited to prokaryotes but may also contribute to physiological and pathological processes in eukaryotes.

8. prions.

prion diseases are infectious and fatal neurodegenerative disorders due to accumulation of, for example, abnormally folded prion protein (prp) s ie (prpsc) in the central nervous system. prpsc catalyzes the further conversion of normal cellular prp into prpsc. both forms of prion protein, prp and prpsc, have been found in exosomes. because exosomes containing prpsc are infectious, they are likely to contribute to the spreading of prions. likewise, a fraction of β-amyloid peptides is ociated with exosomes in alzheimer's disease. because exosomal proteins accumulate in plaques of patient brains, exosomes are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of alzheimer's disease .

9. viruses.

viruses use vesicles for infection and survival .microparticles transfer receptors that are essential for entry of hiv to cells lacking these receptors. for instance, transfer of the chemokine receptors ccr5 and cxcr4 makes recipient cells susceptible to entry of hiv. in addition, uptake of hiv by cells results in ouflage of the virus. capture of hiv by immature dcs produces viral particles that expose characteristic exosomal proteins as cd63 and cd9, and the presence of such proteins is thought to help the virus particles to escape from recognition by the immune system. these viral particles are more infectious to cd4+ t cells than cell-free viral particles .this ouflage can be further improved by coating with host-derived glycoproteins, thereby making viral particles even more closely resembling t-cell-derived vesicles .because virus particles and cell-derived vesicles are of similar size and have many similarities in composition, this has caused major problems with isolation and purification of the virus particles .one of the earliest and most abundantly expressed viral proteins is nef. nef is present in the serum of patients with hiv and interacts with cxcr4, thereby inducing apoptosis and depletion of cd4+ t cells, which is one of the hallmarks of aids . nef stimulates its own export via secretion of exosomes or cd45-exposing microvesicles. in addition, lmp-1, the major oncogene of ebv, is detectable in serum of infected patients. lmp-1 inhibits t cell proliferation and nk cytotoxicity, although other proteins, such as galectin 9, may be involved as well, thereby facilitating escape from the immune system .

viruses also have other strategies to escape from the immune system. for instance, cells infected with hepatitis b virus, pox viruses, or herpes simplex virus, release empty viral particles exposing viral glycoproteins in concentrations up to 10,000 fold higher than that of the infectious particles, suggesting that these vesicles may act as potential decoys to distract the immune system .viruses may use the ability of exosomes to kill immune cells at a distance. lmp-1, which is exposed on exosomes and in microvesicles from ebv-infected cells, inhibits proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this could be relevant in ebv- ociated tumors such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and hodgkin's disease, because it allows tumor cells to escape from immune eradication .

the underlying sorting mechanism of lmp-1 to exosomes is unknown, but the presence of lmp-1 in exosomes is independent from ubiquitination or detergent-resistant membrane domains .expression of lmp-1 also changes the composition of exosomes by increasing the concentrations of important signaling molecules in cancer, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, egfr, and fibroblast growth factor-2, suggesting that ebv 1) manipulates and uses the exosomal pathway for tumor growth and development and 2) protects the exosomes from degradation .the uptake of exosomes from ebv-infected cells by epithelial cells indeed results in activation of growth-stimulating signaling pathways, showing that transfer of lmp-1 and other signaling molecules can manipulate the growth characteristics of neighboring cells .exosomes from an ebv-infected b cell line have been shown to bind preferentially to b cells in blood, whereas exosomes from milk, dcs, or noninfected b cells bind to monocytes. the interaction between exosomes from ebv-infected b cells and b cells is mediated by cd21 on the b cells and glycoprotein 350 on the exosomes. it has been hypothesized that exosome-based vaccines can be developed that interfere with this interaction .

because retroviruses and exosomes have many similarities, including lipid composition and the presence of host-cell proteins, retroviruses have been proposed to have hijacked the pathway of exosome biogenesis for their production to escape from immune detection (i.e., the trojan exosome hypothesis) .although the finding that an inhibitory domain of the hiv gag protein interferes with the sorting of both viral and exosomal proteins, such as cd63, supports this hypothesis ,inhibition of exosome release by blocking ceramide synthesis does not interfere with the release of hiv, suggesting the existence of different routes .

exosomes also have anti-hiv-1 activity ,and the human cytidine deaminase apobec3g, which is a part of a cellular defense system against hiv-1 and other retroviruses, is secreted in exosomes and is actually the major exosomal component explaining the anti-hiv-1 activity of exosomes .furthermore, vesicles from virus-infected cells can present antigens to activate the immune system .

b. cell adhesion

cell-derived vesicles can function as mediators to promote adhesion of a cell to a substrate. for example, microparticles from platelets bind to the endothelial cell matrix at sites of vascular injury in vivo; in turn, the surface-immobilized microparticles support platelet adhesion to that surface, suggesting that the binding of microparticles facilitates thrombus formation at the site of vascular injury .in addition, b cell exosomes mediate anchorage to the endothelial cell matrix .

c. waste mana ent and protection against stress

exosomes from reticulocytes contribute to removal of the redundant transferrin receptor from their surfaces .although it is unknown to what extent cell-derived vesicles contribute to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by waste removal, it is tempting to speculate that vesicles protect cells from extracellular and intracellular stress ,thereby contributing to cellular survival. this would also explain why most cells release vesicles into their environment and is supported by similar findings from prokaryotes .platelets incubated with the complement c5b-9 complex, a form of external stress, release vesicles enriched in the c5b-9 complex, presumably to protect the platelets from complement-induced lysis. in addition, cancer cells release microvesicles enriched in anticancer drugs.

furthermore, exosomes and microvesicles from different types of cells, as well as microvesicles from human plasma, contain substantial amounts of active caspase 3 (one of the main executioners of programmed cell death) that is not detectable in the releasing cells ,suggesting that caspase 3, a form of internal stress, is removed from the cytosol to ensure cellular survival. this hypothesis is further strengthened by the observation that caspase 3-enriched vesicles from endothelial cells are virtually devoid of the vitronectin receptor (i.e., integrin αvβ3), despite the fact that this receptor is the most abundant endothelial receptor and plays a key role in the generation of adhesion-dependent survival signals. apparently, endothelial cells are using vesicles to selectively remove the harmful caspase 3, whereas a survival receptor is maintained on the cells. likewise, exposing b cell lines to heat stress is ociated with a marked increase of hsps in exosomes, suggesting that “alterations in exosome phenotype are a hitherto unknown component of the cellular response to environmental stress” .

d. coagulation

as mentioned, since the 1940s, microvesicles have been ociated with the coagulation process because vesicles can expose ps, a negatively charged phospholipid to which (activated) coagulation factors can bind and emble in the presence of calcium ions, thereby promoting coagulation .in the 1980s, it had already been demonstrated that cell-derived vesicles from tumors are strongly procoagulant .this activity was due to the exposure of tf, the initiator of coagulation .more recently, tumor-derived vesicles exposing tf were shown to be present in peripheral blood of patients with cancer, where they have been ociated with the increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (vte) .an increased concentration of microparticles is ociated with an increased incidence of thrombotic events, for instance in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, who are extremely sensitive to complement-induced lysis because of the absence of complement inhibitors ,and in patients with acute coronary syndromes .conversely, a decreased concentration of microparticles, combined with a defect exposure of ps on activated platelets, is ociated with a bleeding tendency, as in patients with scott syndrome .coagulant tf-exposing vesicles have shown to be present in several body fluids and in different clinical conditions, including pericardial blood from patients undergoing open heart surgery or in the circulation of patients with meningococcal septic shock ,in joint fluid of inflamed joints from patients with arthritis ,and in saliva and urine of healthy subjects .tf-exposing vesicles trigger thrombus formation in vivo ,are abundantly present in human atherosclerotic plaques, and may be deposited at a site of vascular injury by binding to activated platelets. in addition, blood from healthy subjects contains cell-derived vesicles, but these vesicles do not expose coagulant tf and are ociated with an anticoagulant rather than procoagulant function.

direct evidence for involvement of exosomes in coagulation is lacking. nevertheless, several lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that this may be the case. first, exosomes were reported to expose ps ,although others found no asymmetrical distribution of anionic phospholipids or exposure of ps on exosomes .second, biological fluids such as urine and saliva contain exosome-sized vesicles exposing coagulant tf .third, “tf-bearing microvesicles” from a monocytic cell line were shown to be transferred to activated platelets .the microvesicles in this study, however, were isolated at 200,000g and may therefore have been contaminated with exosomes. fourth, blood from patients with sickle-cell disease was shown to contain tf-exposing microvesicles from monocytes and endothelial cells .because these vesicles were isolated at 100,000g (i.e., a condition known to pellet exosomes) and these tf-exposing vesicles were not detected in a parallel study in which microvesicles were isolated at 18,000g (i.e., a condition unlikely to pellet most exosomes but only most of the larger microvesicles), exosomes exposing tf may be present and contribute to coagulation in vivo .

although exosomes may be too small to be observed as single vesicles by most laboratory methods presently available, the ays used to quantify the coagulant properties of cell-derived vesicles in biological fluids usually measure the overall coagulant activity of all vesicles present. thus, the contribution of microvesicles versus exosomes in the coagulation process cannot be distinguished with those activity ays.

e. vascular function and integrity

apoptotic endothelial cells were shown to release not only apoptotic vesicles but also “nanovesicles.” the release of nanoparticles was dependent on caspase 3 activity,and these nanoparticles may contribute to vascular repair because they trigger an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent antiapoptotic phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells. in contrast, vesicles from lps-activated monocytes trigger apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by a caspase 1-dependent mechanism ,suggesting that vesicles may have beneficial as well as adverse effects on vascular integrity. in addition, several studies have shown that microparticles from plasma of preeclamptic women, endothelial cells, lymphocytes of patients with diabetes or hiv, and t cells all impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in vitro, suggesting that microparticles may also affect vascular function .

the oncogenic alteration of cancer cells is known to influence both the number of secreted evs and direct the inclusion of tumor-related molecules into the ev cargo. the presence of cancer markers in evs combined with their release into body fluids, such as blood, urine or semen, highlights their potential use as non-invasive biomarkers.

messenger rnas (mrnas) of pca3 and tmprss2-erg genes have previously been discovered in exos from urine of both prostate cancer (pca) patients and mice grafted with human pca. it has also been demonstrated that prostasomes, exos derived from the seminal fluid, contain chromosomal dna . in addition, the transfer of the tumor suppressor pten through exos conferring tumor-suppression activity to acceptor cells has been recently proven.

the enrichment of mrnas and micrornas in evs suggests that nucleic acids may be selectively packaged into them. however, it is still unclear if the cargo is randomly packed in evs, or whether it is sorted among different ev subpopulations, making some ev types more likely to carry certain material than others.

the researchers investigated if the diverse ev subpopulations from different sources contained gdna fragments. to test this hypothesis,researchers extracted gdna from abs, mvs, and exos derived from different malignant pca cell lines and from plasma of both pca patients and healthy donors. the researchers proved that the ev subpopulations from the cell culture supernatants and plasma contained different gdna fragments, and in some cases dna harboring tp53 and pten mutations.

mitochondrial dna was found in astrocyte- and glioblastoma-derived exos, and single-stranded dna and transposable elements were described in glioblastoma-derived mvs. in the present study, we show that the pca evs contain double-stranded gdna fragments in all the different ev subpopulations: abs, mvs, and exos. just recently, the presence of gdna was first reported in the exos of patients with pancreatic cancer which our findings accordingly complement.

the presence of a part of both tp53 and pten genes in the ev subpopulations was investigated as they are the only genes significantly mutated in both localized and castration-resistant pca tumors, with a broad role in cancer initiation, progression and treatment resistance. on the other hand, mlh1 germline mutations were researched since they are very rare in prostate tumors. in this preliminary study, researchers could detect different gdna cargos in diverse ev subpopulations, which indicate that the molecular content of the evs is dependent on both the cellular source and the specific vesicle subtype.

further, studies also demonstrate that the ev-derived dna has the same mutations in tp53 and pten genes as in their parental tumor cells. the concept of ev subpopulation and cell type-dependent packing of molecular cargo is further supported by our finding of differential total protein content within the ev subtypes, despite the similar concentrations of the pca cell-derived mvs and exos.

moreover,rsearchers also provide evidence as a proof of concept that human plasma-derived evs also carry double-stranded gdna fragments, and that plasma-derived evs are more abundant in pca patients than in healthy donors, as has been previously reported in other cancer types. however, the previously described mutations for the lncap-derived evs were not detected from the plasma ev populations.

the inability to detect specific mutations in patients' samples could be due to the heterogeneous origin of evs in the blood circulation, since evs are also released from other non-cancerous cells. alternatively, it could reflect that these specific mutations were absent in this patient cohort. further studies are required to develop techniques to selectively enrich and isolate tumor ev subpopulations from the total ev pool in plasma.

the ev-mediated education of hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow has been suggested to be a fundamental step in the formation of pre-metastatic niches.the researchers propose that by the secretion of evs, part of the gdna content of the cell can vesicle-specifically be sorted and travel around the body as a ev-protected circulating dna, which contributes to both pre-metastatic niche formation and tumor metastasis. as the ev cargo also likely represents the dynamic molecular changes in the tumor and its progression, evs make a promising candidate for diagnostic biomarkers.

as dna is intrinsically more stable than rna, the analysis of genomic mutations may also be a more robust and sensitive marker of dynamic changes.the researchers consider that the horizontal transfer and uptake of dna mediated by abs, mvs, and exos could be one possible mechanism for the generation of genetic instability and diversity in cancer. altogether, these preliminary results warrant further research to use tumor evs and their gdna content as an additional biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and mana ent of pca.

references:

1- cl ification, functions, and clinical relevance of extracellular vesicles edwin van der pol, anita n. böing, paul harrison, augueste sturk and rienk nieuwlandmark p. mattson, ociate editor/departments of clinical chemistry (e.v.d.p., a.b., a.s., r.n.) and biomedical engineering and physics (e.v.d.p.), academic medical centre of the university of amsterdam, amsterdam, the netherlands; and oxford haemophilia & thrombosis centre, churchill hospital, oxford, united kingdom (p.h.). june 21,2012

2- different gdna content in the subpopulations of prostate cancer extracellular vesicles: apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes/elisa lázaro-ibáñez msc1, andres sanz-garcia phd1, tapio visakorpi md2, carmen escobedo-lucea phd1, pia siljander phd1,3, ángel ayuso-sacido phd1,4,* andmarjo yliperttula phd1,* doi: 10.1002/pros.22853/11 aug 2014/pharmacological review/copyright © 2014 by the american society for pharmacology and experimental the utics



swiss ociation for gifted children



intellectually gifted children



information booklet

this information booklet, as well as a list of recommended readings and a list of publications
in francophone switzerland can also be ed on the asep web site
hhuuwww.asep-
suisse.orguuhh under “publications”. in “conférences” you can also the memos of various
workshops organised by asep.
translated in october 2010

ociation suisse pour les enfants précoces (asep)
swiss ociation for gifted children

table of contents:

gifted children: from myth to reality .................................. 1
how to identify a gifted child? ......................................................... 3
9the disarray of the gifted child ........................................................ 4
iq tests ............................................................................................. 6
0b1what does the iq measure? ....................................................... 8
spotting a gifted child at school .................................... 9
b1gifted children at school...................................................... 10
a different mode of intellectual functioning ................................... 12
2b1what are their needs and how can we help them?....................................................................... 13
14buaa need for recognition ............................................ 13
15bua need for complexity.................................... 14
16bua need for motivation ...................................... 14
13bsolutions .................................................................... 15
17buacceleration .................................................. 15
18buenrichment ............................................................ 16
19buintensification .............................................. 16
learning about methods; methods to learn ........................................... 17
as a conclusion ..................................................... 20
further readings ............................................ 21

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swiss ociation for gifted children

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gifted children:
from myth to reality

the myth: a young genius, with an encyclopedic knowledge of everything, studious, quick
witted, always ready to show off at school…

the reality is in fact a terrible misunderstanding: children with an iq above average
(between 100 and 125/130) are active, attractive, with good verbal abilities. they learn to
read and write easily around the age of 7 and are sometimes even often deemed “gifted” by
their teachers while they are just good students, dedicated and sociable. often, one umes
that intellectual efficiency automatically leads to good academic results.
in fact, the gifted child (iq between 125/130 and 160) is often a difficult child who has
faced integration problems at school very early in life.
at school, she usually tries to avoid being noticed for fear of being perceived as too bright.
aware of being different, she tries to hide it by sometimes making mistakes on purpose.
she does not like to learn anything by heart, and lacks method or organizational skills,
however, she can talk forever about subjects she is p ionate about and often changes her
focus of interest. her motor skills are usually not in line with her intellectual development;
callig hy is a problem, so are sportive or manual activities. her school results are far from
isfactory. her school reports say “could do better”.
her teachers might consider her lazy, agitated, disturbing or a “daydreamer”.

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the child often finds it difficult to live with this difference, even more so when it is ignored,
denied or rejected.
when the child’s gift is recognized, some teachers tend to say that the child does not need
extra help since she is so bright, or, that “since she is so bright, she should adapt to the level
of the others”.
however, this is like asking a child with a normal level of intelligence to spend all her school
years in a cl for intellectually challenged children and to adapt to their level.
only clear and detailed information can rectify this misunderstanding.
it is horrible for a child to be considered to be what she is not, to not be recognized for
what she is. therefore, after you finish reading the following and if you have some suspicions
about a child, we highly recommend you meet with the parents and suggest they consult an
experienced educational psychologist for psychological tests.
the earlier a gifted child is identified, recognized and accepted by her parents, teachers and
friends, the more she will bloom, be comfortable with who she is and with the way the others
perceive her, and the more likely she will be to lead a happy life both socially, emotionally and
in her academic or professional pursuits.


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how to identify a gifted child?

 very early, the gifted child requires stimulation: she does not like repetitive tasks, or
routine. she gets highly interested in something and, when she feels “she has learnt it all”,
she focuses her attention on something else.
 she usually masters language very early: there is no “baby talk”.
 her language skills are so a nced that she often learns to read before primary school
and often on her own, without anyone encouraging her to do so.
 huge curiosity: she asks many questions, many « whys »: these questions quite quickly
touch on the metaphysical side of life. the origin of the universe, of mankind, prehistory.
 there is often a strong discrepancy (dyssynchrony) between the accuracy of her
comments and a behavior that may still be very childish, between her level of
understanding of complex matters and her clumsiness in sports or manual activities.
 high sensitivity – and in particular very sensitive to injustice.
 great sense of humor.
 boredom in school, often starting in kindergarten.
 difficulty integrating into a group, which can be experienced very early; generally, the
gifted child prefers the company of adults or older children.
 she is “in a nce”. the iq puts a number on this “a nce”.
 gifted children may not display all these characteristics since all children are different.
however, noticing several of these signs should raise some suspicions. learning to read on
one’s own, without external istance, is a nearly sure sign. however, not learning to read
at an early age does not mean a child is not gifted.

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9the disarray of the gifted child
already in kindergarten these children encounter difficulties and some of them do not know
where they stand. for instance, they can identify letters and words but they are told that
they are too young to learn how to read. what people say about them neither corresponds
with the way they feel nor with what they are already capable of doing.
they are pushed by a force they do not understand but which incites them to explore
further and further the world around them. this endless curiosity makes them ask questions
non-stop. if this thirst for knowledge is denied they turn this force inwards or suppress it
and suffer terribly.
in the first year of primary school, they start getting bored and busy themselves the best
they can: some look through the window, reflecting on their universe, their dreams… when
they come back to earth, they listen once to the teacher’s explanation and have understood
everything. it works ok and they get “average” results. those who are more unstable and/or
less quiet are agitated and disturb the cl … they even get expelled from one school to the
next, awaiting the ideal school for their specificity!
they look very much forward to joining secondary school but are quickly disappointed. it
appears that they do not know how to study. they have no learning technique. for instance,
they rarely know their multiplication tables since they hate rote learning. so far, they have
managed because the exercises have been relatively simple: in grammar, they don’t know the
rules but have always relied on their intuition which was enough to answer relatively simple
questions. now they are told to study but they do not know how. before, they just needed to
read a lesson once. now, they read and re-read it, to no avail.
they have heard that an intelligent child always manages: they conclude that they are not
intelligent. sometimes their school results even become catastrophic.
they are amazed; they thought they were gifted, that everything was easy. they used to
understand everything and suddenly, they have lost this gift. these children think that they
have lost everything, and that they have reached their limit. they are depressed.
their parents also suffer a lot from this situation. their child with her elegant way of
speaking, with her endless curiosity, who always had something interesting to say and whom
they were proud of now has turned into a demotivated or even depressed teen or preteen
who can’t explain what is wrong with her.
this is a tragic description of their school life, but it is also unfortunately an all too frequent
occurrence.
they also encounter difficulties integrating: the parents usually understand their child but
outside the family, the difference is immediately perceived: the others, sometimes very

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subtly, don’t include her. she is never willingly chosen as a team member or she is obviously
ignored, sometimes even mobbed.
gifted children often display a great sense of humor. this starts very early and the other
children do not understand those jokes which make the adults laugh; gifted children do not
really enjoy vulgar or simple jokes which appeal to other children. they do not enjoy vulgarity
or violence.

they do not feel affectively fulfilled and the worst is that they are told that it is their fault
because they are too demanding.
the most tragic situation is when gifted children do not express their needs because they
have sensed, thanks to their intelligence, that their problems are not welcomed in the family.
so they keep quiet, tend to be as invisible and neutral as possible, so as not to attract
attention. they have average school results.
when they are grown up, they will be scarred from childhood. they will often be brilliant,
with a sarcastic sense of humor, aggressive in a funny way so quickly forgiven: but deep down,
they will be frustrated and miserable.
gifted children have two fundamental needs:
 to feel at peace with themselves and their “difference” (with their teachers and their
friends).
 to develop their astonishing potential.
encouraging these children to reach their potential will benefit each and every one of us.
giftedness is a blessing for society.

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iq tests
the tests invented by binet in 1904 measure the child’s mental age with regards to her
actual age (in years of life). a gifted child displays a mental age of 2 to 8 years over the
“chronological” age. an 8 year old with a very high iq could have the mental age of a 16 year
old.
currently, the most widely used tests are wechsler’s which enable a statistical comparison.
the iq is no longer compared to the chronological age but is measured statistically to a
“standard iq” which defines the child’s rank in comparison to children his age. the iq is no
longer very important, what matters is the rank, i.e. the number of individuals in the
reference group with an identical iq to the tested individual. wechler’s tests measure iqs
up to 160, some us tests go even further. for information, 1 person out of 31’000 has an iq
over 160.

thus, giftedness is defined by a statistical norm of normal average development for one
population. the average iq is 100 with a standard deviation of 15. the standard is therefore
between 85 and 115.

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the iq is distributed following a bell-shape curve:

this curve shows that 1 in 20 children has an iq over 125 (5 % of the population), and 1 in
1000 children has an iq over 145 (0.1 % of the population).
as a summary, this statistical study shows that iqs between 85 and 115 are
deemed normal, iqs below 70 define learning difficulties, and iqs over
125/130 define intellectual giftedness. however, a “sensitive” zone exists
between 125 and 130; indeed these figures are not barriers but references;
the global intellectual profile is often more interesting than the global iq
figure. the “potential ability essment” is an indirect measurement which
cannot be compared to height or weight measurement. this iq can totally
correspond to the child’s potential or can underestimate it (especially if the
child is going through a difficult phase). however, it is impossible to
overestimate the potential and we can therefore say without doubt that a
child with an iq over 130 is gifted.
the further the iq differs from the norm, the less the amount of individuals
in that group and the more obvious the differences, even compared with other
gifted children.
one number is clearly not enough to describe one child. her intelligence,
though of utmost importance, is only one of the components of her
personality, namely at school.

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10b1what does the iq measure?
the iq is a comparative measurement of intellectual abilities. it helps evaluate the
intellectual efficiency with a list of questions and standardized tasks intended to measure
one individual’s abilities to behave in an efficient and relevant manner.
however, a child cannot be reduced to this number only. the iq does not measure the
globalism of intelligence but only the individual’s intellectual efficiency at the time the test
was taken.
for example, the psychological test wisc-iv (wechsler’s test for children aged 6 to 16,
latest 2005 version) determines scores in the following fields:
 verbal: logic, abstraction, understanding of values and social norms, deduction. these
tests make up the verbal understanding score.
 non-verbal: logic, deduction, abstraction, visual and spatial reasoning. these tests make up
the perceptive reasoning score.
 working memory (short term listening & verbal memory).
 processing speed: g hic and motor skills
 the global iq is made up of these 4 scores.
 the intellectual profile is analyzed in detail and gives important information to ist
the child in identifying her weak and strong points.
 the total global iq is made up of these 4 scores, and could sometimes, if the
discrepancies are big, give an erroneous image of the tested subject.
research shows that, in 87% of cases, the iq is stable. however, for 13% of cases, a 10
point difference exists and in 3% of cases, a 15 points difference was noted (1998, canivez &
watkins, study of 667 children who took the wisc-iii twice within 2.87 years). we can see
that usually, the iq is stable but it is a statistical average that is of little meaning without
an accompanying individual analysis.

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spotting a gifted child at school
not all gifted children are best in their cl . however, among the best performers there are
also many gifted students, especially among the s. gifted children with difficulties are
more frequently identified and it is of utmost importance that they receive istance so
that they can make the best use of their potential and integrate in our society. but gifted
children without apparent problems also have different needs. it is essential that these
needs be met, to ist in the psycho-affective development and to prevent failures
which are very frequent during teenage years.
this table is extracted from « l’enfant surdoué, l’aider à grandir, l’aider à réussir » by
jeanne siaud-facchin. these hints, neither exhaustive nor systematic, may alert you and
justify testing your child.
what we observe
what we understand
very irregular school results. excellent in one
subject for one year and disastrous in the same
subject the year after…
the child’s investment in school work depends on
her level of affection and respect towards the
teacher. she tests the competency and abilities
of the teacher. she needs boundaries and trust to
operate at her best.
she constantly asks for proof and justification
from the teachers.
she needs meaning and re urance to keep going.
noisy active participation or total withdrawal
enthusiasm for school and intellectual curiosity or
total boredom
talkative, rowdy, dreamer, agitated… but listening
specific concentration mechanisms, acute need to
do several things at once to be able to
concentrate.
cannot explain how she found a solution to a
problem, cannot develop her reasoning
intuitive functioning, analogical thinking through
the right hemisphere
excellent oral skills, appalling written skills
discrepancy between verbal and written skills.
often alone and isolated in the playground
rejected by other children due to the perceived
difference, lonely because she can’t find children
with a similar way of functioning and similar
centers of interest.
inadequate answer or no answer from an
otherwise brilliant student. irrelevant answer
although she appears to have understood all the
subtleties of the subject
differences of implicit (presumed tacit),
importance of the literal sense, arborescent way
of thinking, divergent way of thinking

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11b11gifted children at school
catherine leiser, professor of physics in paris (fénelon lycée), has observed students during
11 years and has listed typical characteristics which she believes can define giftedness in
some of them. negatives and positives are combined:
uupositives
 fast
 curious
 witted
 intuitive
 good memory
 real or potential work capacity
 imagination
 originality
 strong personality, strong character
uunegative
 not very academic
 lack of in-depth thinking
 lack of method
 lack of motivation
 superficial or insufficient way of studying
 inefficient in routine tasks
 lack of focus
 bad use of intuition

as a summary, by using her good memory, her quick mindedness and her ease to adapt, the
student makes up for irregular studying, a frequent lack of motivation and lack of methods…
used to finding school easy (good memory, intuition), the student is constantly under-
stimulated and she succeeds without really needing to organize her work.

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during primary school, she will not really need to confront a learning process entailing efforts
and challenges.
some will use their abilities to avoid making any effort, others will stay vigilant and will
manage to adapt when the level becomes more difficult and eventually interesting. academic
failure in gifted children is seen in 1 for 4 boys and in 16% of all children all ages and
genders. however, in children aged 12 to 18, failure is much more frequent, up to 50%, easily
fixable with adequate istance. these statistics relate to gifted children identified by
psychometric testing.
the large variety of functioning modes of gifted children does not allow us to describe the
“typical child” which would be a caricature.
but they have points in common, due to the large discrepancy between their level of
intelligence and the schooling level, which sometimes makes them feel inadequate; this varies
with age.

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a different mode of intellectual functioning
gifted children process information in a very different way than the average population.
they have more important capacities for analogical processing, a faster processing speed,
they basically understand faster. their short term memory is twice the norm and their long
term memory is also larger than the norm.
in her book “the gifted child”, jeanne siaud-facchin explains how studies on the brain have
shown that gifted children use their right hemisphere (which treats information globally,
simultaneously and manages emotions) more than their left hemisphere (which analyses and
breaks down information sequentially). it would also appear that their brain can receive a
larger quantity of information at the same time and that exchanges between both
hemispheres are faster.
in parallel to psychometric testing (iq tests), a second category of tests has been
developed by anglo-saxon research to appreciate divergent thinking, that means the ability
of an individual to find original and innovative alternative solutions to situations she may be
faced with.
this research has shed a new light on intuition, which was long considered to be a sixth sense.
this processing seems particularly effective with gifted children who are better at
applying solutions than at explaining them. they use formal logical thinking, divergent
thinking and intuition with a rare ability and ease, in a very speedy way.
jeanne siaud-facchin also explains that gifted children use arborescent thinking, while so-
called “normal” children think in a sequential way. “arborescent” thinking can also be
described as “visual-spatial” thinking.
the school system is based on the sequential way of thinking. this is why gifted children feel
out of place and why teachers do not understand why a child who was officially declared
“intelligent” is incapable of applying learning methods or problem resolution strategies which
have proved adequate with so many other children.
for instance, if the teacher gives a mathematical problem with additions and subtractions,
the gifted child will immediately give the correct answer but will be incapable of explaining
how she got to it. if we ask her to explain how she found the solution, she won’t be capable of
explaining and will answer that she “just knew”. this probably will lead to a bad grade and the
teacher will conclude that the child has not understood anything while she simply has not
understood the sequential problem resolution method proposed by the school system.
similarly, when asked to write an essay describing her holidays, the average child will tell a
story with a beginning, a middle and an end while the gifted child will get lost in her thoughts
and souvenirs, each thought bringing a new idea or remembrance and one hour later, when she

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notices that her page is still blank, she will launch into a furious bout of writing, most
probably not on the given subject.
the gifted child does not naturally possess the ability to organize her thoughts sequentially.
12b1what are their needs and how can we help them?
14b14buaa need for recognition
it is important that the child be detected through psychometric tests and then recognized
and accepted for what she is. since she feels different, the gifted child easily loses her
self confidence; this phenomenon is often seen in subjects who are outside the norm. it
is also a good idea not to consider that her competencies are normal (due to her high iq) but
to congratulate and praise her as we do with other children when they have good results.
these sensitive children need to feel encouraged and backed up by their families and
teachers, like all other children. the difference lies in the fact that the gifted child,
considered highly intelligent, can be more easily left to fend for herself; the adults will
naturally focus their attention on children with learning difficulties.


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15b15buua need for complexity
in her book “how to help your highly gifted child”, stéphanie tolan gives the following
example: she takes the vision we have of the world, stating that most people see it through a
lens (sometimes blurry) while gifted children see it through a microscope and, for highly
gifted children with an iq over 145, through an electronic microscope. they see things in a
very different way and often see things that others don’t.
and even though there are a ntages to this very strong perception, there are also
downsides. arielle ada shares this opinion; she believes gifted children also feel things on the
affective and emotional level with more acuity and seem to guess things that others can’t see
(« hhl'enfant doué, l'intelligence réconciliée hh » a. adda - h. catroux).
stéphanie tolan also reminds us that even though gifted children learn faster than others,
they also learn differently. the standard methods of education cut up the subjects in
manageable units presented one after the other. the gifted child’s brain can manage a large
quantity of information and they thrive on complexity. “giving these children units of simple
information is like feeding an elephant one blade of gr after the other – it will die of
starvation before even noticing that someone is trying to feed it”.
“if they have understanding difficulties in school, their way of processing information
becomes appallingly bad and they don’t learn anything. inappropriate teaching, because too
easy, kills all motivation. the only way for them to function is to receive 5 to 10 times more
information than the other children. (j.-p. t in, french neurobiologist)
this does not mean that the child knows everything and will master easily the complexity of
learning, but she needs this complexity to use all her intellectual resources.
16b16buua need for motivation
since these children have a large need for complexity, they will easily be demotivated by an
easy task that they probably won’t finish, while they will be stimulated by an intellectual
challenge which would appear unachievable to any other child. they also need to feel
supported and encouraged by their teachers and their parents.
it is important that the teacher favors variety, allows the child to choose the topics to study
(essays, presentations), and presents her with challenges, difficult exercises or enigmas. the
teacher can propose an activity in line with the subject studied but which will be challenging
to her (research), and add creative thinking during the daily lessons. for instance, questions
starting with: what would happen if?

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13b13bsolutions
several solutions can be considered and they depend on the child’s character, personality and
maturity: acceleration, enrichment and intensification.
often, the child’s immediate environment will define the best solutions. there is no
standard solution and it is of utmost importance to analyze the child’s specific situation.


17b17buuacceleration
acceleration means respecting the child’s rhythm of intellectual development and means
jumping one, sometimes two (for children with an iq over 145) grades. in the cl ic school
system, it can happen at various points. starting primary school one year early is quite wise
for children who are mature enough.
for the children who can already read in kindergarten, they may jump the first year of
primary school and start directly in second year. acceleration avoids a large discrepancy
between the child’s intellectual abilities, her learning rhythm and the school program. the
main drawback is an even larger discrepancy between her and the other children’s motor
skills, especially when jumping two grades. acceleration is neither a definitive nor an ideal
solution for all children. children with an iq over 145 will rarely be isfied with only one
jump.

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18b18buuenrichment
enrichment gives the child a wider access to information, enabling her to synthesize in a
more elaborate way. here, we are talking about “feeding” the child’s intellectual curiosity.
she can practice this enrichment herself of through tools supplied to her.
in general, a gifted child does not need as long as his school friends to go through the
school’s official program. practicing 100 times to learn how to add is of very little
interest when she already masters the technique after 10 additions, sometimes even
less.
this is when the teacher can supply her with enriching material (books, different exercises,
etc…) while the others finish their work.
novelty is attractive and the possibility to practice more challenging activities will help the
child not get bored while helping her practice her reasoning skills. children are usually happy
to use their creativity to prepare presentations or other group projects. activities like
outings or field trips are especially adapted to this pedagogical solution.
19b19buuintensification
intensification, means acquiring a deeper knowledge of the ”official” subjects of the
school year. the idea is not, like for enrichment, to multiply the subjects but to study
specific subjects in depth.
tools used for enrichment and for intensification can obviously be combined. in 1951, de
craecker already explained that intensification for gifted children contributed “not only to
their mental development but also to their moral and social well-being, enabling them, namely,
to understand and accept their obligations towards the other students”.

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learning about methods;
methods to learn
to reduce the handicap that represents her arborescent way of thinking, it is important to
help the child understand how she functions and teach her how to use the cl ic methods of
learning from an early age. we should however not deny her own thinking mechanism but
rather help her understand how the methods used at school will help her succeed not only at
school but in her future job. these methods must be applied to enable her to be successful.
in their book « hhl’enfant doué, l’intelligence réconcilié hhe » arielle adda and hélène catroux
propose the use of mental mana ent (see also uubooks by antoine de la garanderie uuhh) to ist
gifted children to understand and analyze the way their brain works but also to acquire
learning methods. these methods teach them to organize their thoughts, recycle information
and explain what they have learnt.
uuon a practical side :
a gifted child in cl means extra work for the teacher. s/he will need to think, investigate,
train and innovate but, if taken positively, this challenge will be an enrichment for the entire
cl .
here are a few suggestions, coming from european and american specialists, as well as
solutions implemented by teachers in francophone switzerland.
anyone can adapt them or get inspiration from them. it depends on the teacher’s personality
and sensitivity. it is of utmost importance to propose a subject that you like teaching.
congratulate and encourage the child, do not take her results for granted despite her
potential. these children are very demanding towards themselves and are quick to lose self-
confidence. they need recognition for their efforts and performance. if they don’t receive
this, they feel like a “failure”.
discuss the globalism of learning. the gifted child needs to know where she is headed. in
mathematics, it is a good idea to present the exercise globally then describe every single
operation necessary to solve the problem. in history, present the era that will be studied
then discuss the various events that produced the historical fact.
while it is important to sympathize about her differences, it is as important to help her
acquire methods to learn. lead her to reflect on her intellectual functioning and explain it
to her. when a child is very good in one subject, help her identify the strategies used and
encourage her to use the same in subjects where she may be struggling a little more. help
her structure her knowledge because she doesn’t likely know any method to learn.

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teach her how to present a project or a presentation. formalize a path to follow, meaning
show her a method in a subject where she is less competent. give a meaning to what she is
learning: gifted children always need to know the reasons why they are asked to do things.
in primary school, for each cl , children are supplied with exercise papers. often, only one
exercise is enough for a gifted child to understand. having to do 5 or 6 more is close to
torture and she finds it very difficult to endlessly practice what she considers useless.
we can also suggest that she creates exercises herself for her friends, that she helps
those who do not understand or simply that she takes a book and reads. avoid making her the
constant istant to the teacher; this may entail jealousy from her cl mates, which would
be enormously painful for her.
children who have finished their work should be proposed with attractive activities linked
to the day’s lessons. they can be encouraged to link one lesson with another subject studied.
encourage them to research more information on a subject so as to create a written or
verbal story, a theater play, a presentation for the cl ...
when they use their knowledge and their hunger to learn (therefore their difference) to
help the remaining students in the cl , they feel very useful and it helps them feel
comfortable in their cl .
to avoid boredom, it is preferable to enable them to go beyond what they already know. it
is good to suggest an activity linked to the lesson but which will be a challenge to them.
repetitive exercises hold no interest whatsoever to them.
another good idea is to suggest that they could manage a project; ask them to think about
what type of project they would be interested in, how they can use the knowledge they have
and how they prefer to express it (create a game of cards, a scientific experiment, a theater
play, a painting, etc…). the other children in the cl are usually quite interested in these
individual projects that add a little novelty in the cl .
finally, for group work, it is preferable, as much as possible, to let the child choose their
group (and their subject) and to lay the ground rules:
 try more than one idea,
 speak in turns,
 help each other, do one’s best,
 listen to the others,
 and ask for the teacher’s istance in case of a significant disagreement.

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when the work is finished, children must be evaluated on an individual basis, on their
individual work more than on the way everybody contributed. one of the reasons gifted
children do not like to work in groups is that they find it unfair to share a bad grade with a
group because the group followed the majority vote and not theirs, even though they knew
their subject perfectly. or that the entire group relied on them and that they were the only
ones who contributed.
when the gifted teenager is experiencing difficulties, or even failure, she mainly needs
people in her surroundings to ist her to get back on track and re-enter the learning
process. recognizing her extraordinary abilities is fundamental but accepting and
understanding her disarray in front of her unexpected failure is indispensable to ist her
to reintegrate in the school system (“school failure of the gifted child”, article by claudia
jankech and jean claude anthamatten, www.jankech.ch).
to summarize, these children like stimulation and challenges. imaginative and creative,
they like to “explore” knowledge. when a teacher takes a ntage of these
characteristics, it is enriching for the entire cl .
uuthe gifted child and ociated learning disorders:
when a gifted child is failing at school, before uming that the teaching methods are the
only reason for the problem, it is wise to check whether she may suffer from dyslexia-
dysorthog hia (learning difficulties for the written language, including reading and spelling)
and/or hdd (with or without hyperactivity). gifted children can hide these problems through
compen ory strategies. however, from the 5th, maybe 7th year of school, these difficulties
will become an immense hurdle and may lead the gifted child to failure. these difficulties can
only be identified by specialists. in the case of dyslexia, the earlier the child starts
treatment, the better (see document on the conference “intelligence and dyslexia”, may
2007).
in general, the identification process of these learning difficulties in the gifted child is
different from the process with a “normal” child. they are diagnosed later and with more
difficulties; this can generate many misunderstandings and give a negative image of the child
whose family and teacher may perceive as gifted but a low performer.

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as a conclusion
“gifted children are not really like the others but, like the others, they are children”
dr. olivier revol.
despite the myths, we shouldn’t expect prodigious achievements or exceptional results. their
difference is often a real handicap to them. gifted with a remarkable memory, they can learn
effortlessly what they are interested in but find it very hard to learn “off by heart”,
especially what they find “meaningless”.
even if they seem gifted with seriously above-average cognitive competencies, these
hypersensitive children suffer from stress more than the others. affectivity is their main
driver and their behaviour is often influenced by their environment. de-motivated, they will
lose their interest and their drive. enrichment and intensification of the school program can
partially help them to re-motivate.

gifted children need a precise frame, even more than other children. the school system must
allow them to use their extra intellectual abilities but also teach them learning methods to
ensure that they do not only rely on their competencies.
in parallel, it is important for them to understand how they think and to make the best use
of their abilities. they also need to learn how to use the school system methods; that’s the
key to their adaptation.
these children need an adapted pedagogy, which takes into account not only their learning
rhythm and their potential, but their weaknesses as well.

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further readings
for parents:

the social and emotional development of gifted children. what do we know?
neihart, m., reis, s. m., robinson, n. m. & moon, s. m. - service publication of nagc. prufrock
press, inc., waco, texas, 2002.

guiding the gifted child. a practical source for parents and teachers. (25th edition).
webb, j. t., meckstroth, e. a. & tolan, st. - gifted psychology press, scottsdale, arizona,
2005.

bright minds, poor grades. understanding and motivating your underachieving child
whitley, m. - the berkley publishing group, new york, 2001.

gifted children. myths and realities
winner, e. - basic books. harper collins publishers, new york, 1996.

the social and emotional lives of gifted kids: understanding and guiding their
development tracy l. cross- prufrock press, inc, 2005

the gifted kids survival guide
judy galbraith, pam espeland & albert molnar -free spirit publishing, 1984

you know your child is gifted when …: a beginner’s guide to life on the bright side
judy galbraith - free spirit publishing, 2000

family math
stenmark, j. k., thompson, v. h., & cossey, r. (1986) -berkeley, ca: lawrence hall of science,
university of california.

independent study for gifted learners
johnsen, s. k. & goree, k. - prufrock press, inc., texas, 2005.

stand up for your gifted child - how to make the most of kids' strengths at school
and at home
joan franklin smutny – free spirit publishers, 2001.

upside-down brilliance – the visual spatial learner
linda kreger silverman - glen ellyn media, 2009

losing our minds – gifted children left behind
dr deborah ruf - great potentials press, 2005

autonomous leaner model. optimizing ability
betts, g.t. & kercher, j.k. – alps publishing, greeeley, colorado, 1999

flow – the psychology of optimal experience
csikszentmihaly, m. – harper & row, new york, 1990

intelligence reframed. multiple intelligences for the 21st century
gardner, h. - basic books, new york, 1999

the gifted adult
jacobsen, m.-e. – ballantine books, new york, 1999

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smart s. a new psychology of s, women and giftedness.
keer, b.a. – great potential press, inc., scottsdale, az, 1997

smart boys: talent, manhood and the search for meaning
keer, b.a., cohn, s.j. & alcorn, a. – great potential press, inc., scottsdale, az 2001

could do better, why children underachieve and what to do about it
mandel, h.p., & marcus, s.i, dean, l. – john wiley & sons, inc., new york, 1995
for teachers – educators – homeschooling parents:

the schoolwide enrichment model. how to guide for educational excellence (2nd ed.)
reis, s. m. & renzulli, j. s. - creative learning press, inc., connecticut, 1997.

curriculum starter cards - developing differentiated lessons for gifted children
kaplan, s., & cannon, m. w (2002) -waco, tx.- prufrock press.

the multiple menu model. a practical guide for developing differentiated curriculum
renzulli, j. s., leppien, j. h., & hays, t. s. (2000) - mansfield center, ct. creative learning
press.

the parallel curriculum: a design to develop high potential and challenge high-ability
learners - tomlinson, c., kaplan, s. n., renzutli, j. s., purcell, j., leppien, j., & burns, d.
(2002) - thousand oaks, ca: corwin press.

developing verbal talent
vant el-baska, j., johnson, d., & boyce, l. (i 996) - allyn & bacon.

content-based curriculum for gifted learners
vant el-baska, j., & little, c. a. (eds.). (2003) - waco, tx: prufrock press.

students and research: practical strategies for science cl rooms and competitions
(3rd ed.)
cothron, j. h., giese, r. n., & rezba, r. j. (2000) - dubuque, ia: kendall hunt publishing co.

science fare- an illustrated guide and catalog of toys, books, and activities for kids
saul, w, & newman, a. (i 986).new york: harper & row.

multiple intelligences in the cl room. ociation for supervision and curriculum
development - armstrong, th. - virginia, 1994.

the survival guide for teachers of gifted kids: how to plan, manage and evaluate
programs for gifted youth k-12
delisle, j. & lewis, b. a. - free spirit publishing, minneapolis, 2003.

teaching young gifted kids in the regular cl room: identifying, nurturing and
challenging ages 4-9
smutny, f.j., walker, s.y., meckstroth, e. a. - free spirit publishing, minneapolis, 1997.

teaching gifted kids in the regular cl room: strategies and techniques every teacher
can use to meet the academic needs of the gifted and talented
winebrenner, s. - free spirit publishing, minneapolis, 2001.

curriculum provision for the gifted and talented in the secondary school
eyre, d. & lowe, h. – david fulton publishers, new york, 2002

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links:
- national ociation for gifted children nagc: www.nagc.org
- european council for high ability echa: www.echa.ws
- center for gifted education and talent development: www.gifted.uccon.edu
- educational resources for lifelong learning: www.alspublishing.com
- understanding evolution for teachers:
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evohome.html

of course, this list is non-exhaustive!


a million thanks to all those who offered their time, experience and skills to
contribute to the design of this booklet.
mrs. chine benjemia, initiator of the booklet (in french)
mrs. emmanuelle derly for the english version
mrs. lisa stephenson for the proof reading
pécub for his drawings


the light between oceans 2016

 

 

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    ۱- همواره قابل دسترس می باشد اما لینک های آپلود بوی بعد از گذشت چند ماه از دسترس خارج شده و قابل نیستند ، در صورتی که این پست مشکل دارد لطفا از طریق بخش نظرات اعلام بفرمایید تا اصلاح شود ( لینک های آپلودبودی مجددا آپلود نمی شوند ) .

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supreme leader's speech in meeting with government officials

wednesday jul 16, 2014


mr.hamid irani / www.polir.orq.ir


the following is the full text of the speech delivered on july 7, 2014 by ayatollah khamenei, the supreme leader of the islamic revolution, in a meeting with government officials. the meeting was held in the imam khomeini (r.a.) hussainiyah on the ninth day of the holy month of ramadan.

in the name of allah, the beneficent, the merciful

all praise is due to allah, the lord of the worlds, and peace and greetings be upon our master and prophet, muhammad, and upon his immaculate household

first of all, i would like to welcome each and every one of you brothers and sisters and the dear and committed officials of the islamic republic. it is a very good meeting and by allah's favor, it will be full of divine blessings and guidance and the light of this month. the statements of mr. president were good and complete statements. i hope that by the blessedness of this month and the pure prayers of righteous people, believers and those who fast, what the officials of the country intend to do will produce the desired results.

the month of ramadan has been described as "auspicious". the reason why this month is auspicious is that it is a way to liberate oneself from the fire of hell and to achieve paradise. as we read in the prayers of the month of ramadan, "this is the month of liberation from hell and achieving paradise" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 90]. divine paradise and the fire of divine hell exist in this world as well. what happens in the hereafter is the manifestation of this world: "indeed, hell surrounds the unbelievers on all sides" [the holy quran, 9: 49]. hell has surrounded unbelievers, oppressors, enemies and opponents, in this world and in this life. the same is true of paradise.

it is in our own hands to go from hell to paradise. this happens in this world and its concrete, hidden and real manifestation will be witnessed in the hereafter. we can take this trip and this path from the hell of misconduct, misgivings and doubts - which belongs to this world - to the paradise of good deeds, good thoughts, good behavior and good conduct. this path and movement is called "penitence" and "repentance". it has been said in a prayer that "[t]his is the month of penitence and this is the month of repentance" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 25]. it is with penitence and repentance that one is liberated from hell and that one achieves paradise.

one of the blessings of the auspicious month of ramadan is the prayers of this month. these prayers teach us how to speak to god, how to ask him for help and how to pay attention to him. moreover, they teach us many lessons for which we cannot find an equal even in common moral narrations. i have chosen two prayers from this month which i would like to narrate in the beginning of my speech. the selection of these two prayers is because of our needs today.

today, we - as officials of our dear country and the islamic republic - urgently need serious and diligent work which is accompanied by purity and sincerity. these two prayers help us move toward this path. one prayer is the prayer of the first day of the auspicious month of ramadan. i have chosen this part from this prayer: "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it. do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence and among those who rely on things other than action" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 23].

the first sentence says, "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it". this action should be purposeful, one that enjoys intention and one that is clear in a nce where it is leading to. the second sentence is "do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence". "kisalat" means laziness and idleness. it says, "god, do not place us among these people". this is what the prayer teaches us. the third sentence is: "and among those who rely on things other than action".

it says, "do not place us among those who day dream, rant and fabricate issues in a meeting without taking any action". notice that this is the lesson of this prayer. in the first day of the month of ramadan, believers enter the divine feast with this spirit. this is one of the great servings of this feast. this is one prayer.

the second prayer is one that is said on each day of this auspicious month. it says, "and save me from drowsiness, laziness, exhaustion, carelessness, inflexibility, ignorance and deception" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 26]. it asks god to save us from these characteristics: the first is drowsiness. the second is laziness. the third is exhaustion. it means getting sick and tired of something. the next one is carelessness. it means doing things in a careless way and ignoring precision. the next one is hardness of heart, fossilization and inflexibility. the next one is ignorance and confusion about our position and about what is happening and what is ahead of us. and the last one is deception and arrogance.

it asks god to save us from these characteristics. notice what lessons these prayers are. well, the function of these concepts - which are lofty and outstanding concepts - is much more important for officials in charge of public affairs than for ordinary individuals. when we say, "oh god, do not make us suffer from laziness, inflexibility and ignorance", we are making this request from two perspectives: one is from a personal perspective. we make this personal request so that we do not make a mistake and so that we do not face problems.

another is from the perspective of our responsibilities. you are like a captain who is steering a ship. you are like a pilot who is flying a plane. the issue is not only the issue of your lives. you are different from a person who is driving his car on a road alone. his responsibility is to protect his own life. but you are not like him. a group of people are with you. these are the things that make your responsibilities and commitment - on the issues that were discussed - heavier.

in our religious literature, the month of ramadan is the month of confronting shaitan and anic behavior on the one hand and behaving in a kind way, obeying god and worshiping him on the other hand. on the one hand, it is said that shaitan is tethered in the month of ramadan and on the other hand, it is said that the month of ramadan is the month of obeying and worshiping god. the shortest and most meaningful word to describe this month is the word "piety": "fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may show piety" [the holy quran, 2: 183].

the issue is the issue of confrontation between shaitan and piety. shaitan's job is to tempt. what does tempting mean? it means creating disruption in your calculation system. this is shaitan. the opposite point is piety's role. shaitan's effort is to tempt you. that is to say, he tries to make our minds, our nature and our calculation system - which has been installed inside man - stop working. he wants to make us make a mistake in calculation.

piety's job is the opposite of this: "if you fear allah, he will grant you a criterion to judge between right and wrong" [the holy quran, 8: 29]. piety gives you a criterion. that is to say, it gives you the awareness to separate truth from falsehood. in another holy ayah, god says, "so, fear allah for it is god that teaches you" [the holy quran, 2: 282]. with piety, allah the exalted opens the gates of knowledge, awareness and wisdom to you.

shaitan influences our calculation system with threats and temptations. on the one hand, he frightens us. a holy ayah from sura aal-e imran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples: be not afraid of them, but fear me if you have faith" [the holy quran, 3: 175]. on the issue of the battle that happened after the battle of uhud - there was a rumor saying that the enemy is coming to destroy muslims and that muslims are going to lose everything - the holy prophet (s.w.a.) said, "those of you who be e wounded in the battle of uhud today should carry their swords and accompany me. if none of you comes, i will go alone".

the holy prophet (s.w.a.) set out to go. those who had been wounded in uhud on that day took their swords and accompanied the holy prophet (s.w.a.). with a surprise attack, they went and destroyed the enemy who had lain in ambush near madina, who had started these rumors and who had decided to attack. and then they returned: "and they returned with grace and bounty from allah and no harm ever touched them" [the holy quran, 3: 174]. then the holy quran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples".

so, one of the things that shaitan does is to cause fear. "shaitan threatens you with poverty" [the holy quran, 2: 268]. he frightens us with poverty. according to an interpretation of this holy ayah, this was a threat. on the other hand, one of the things that he does is to tempt. shaitan gives certain promises which are deceitful: "shaitan makes them promises, and creates in them false desires, but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception" [the holy quran, 4: 120].

he gives promises and awakens desires in people's hearts. he paints a colorful, fake and imaginary future - like a mirage - for the eyes of believers. "but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception". his promises are hollow. on the one hand, he makes threats and on the other hand, he tempts. this is like america's behavior in the present time. this is like the behavior that arrogant powers always show. on the one hand, they make threats and on the other hand, they tempt. these temptations are not only personal. they temp in general ways. they say, "we do this, we do that". but they do not and they lie. this is what shaitan does.

all the things that shaitan does - including tempting and making threats - are for the sake of making our calculation system stop working so that we make wrong calculations. when one's calculation system stops working, things go out of order. making wrong calculations is one of the greatest dangers. it sometimes threatens man's life and it sometimes threatens his fate. this is because man's power and capabilities are under the domination of his will and his will is under the influence of his calculation system. if his calculation system does not work properly, his will makes a decision and moves towards the direction which is wrong.

in such circumstances, all his power and capabilities move in this wrong direction. this is what we should be careful about. as i said, for a person who does not have a responsibility, taking care has a certain meaning and for you and i who have a responsibility, it has a different meaning. we should take care not to let our calculation system witness a disruption by human and jinn shaitans. we should take care not to misunderstand issues. shaitan is not only from among jinns. he is not only iblis: "likewise, did we make for every messenger an enemy - shaitans among men and jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception" [the holy quran, 6: 112].

shaitans among men and jinns help one another. i would like to stress that one of the mistakes in the area of calculation is that we remain confined to visible and purely materialistic factors. one of the mistakes is to ignore spiritual factors, divine traditions - those which god has informed us about and those that are invisible. this is one of the great mistakes in the area of calculation. god has said, "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your stance" [the holy quran, 47: 7].

can this be said in a clearer way? if you move on the path of god and if you help god's religion, god will help you. this is unchangeable: "you shall not find any change in the course of allah" [the holy quran, 33: 62]. if you move on the path of reviving the divine religion and if you preserve this path, god will help you. this has been said by the holy quran with such clarity. this is the divine promise. we have experienced this in practice.

you should know that this era of the history of the revolution will be one of the most prominent historical eras in the history that will be discussed by future generations. in this materialistic world, in the world of the domination of superpowers and in the world of widespread hostility towards islam and towards islamic teachings and values, a system has been created based on islam and in an area where the agents of deviating powers had exerted more influence than any other area in the world.

this is a strange event. you and i have gotten used to it. this is the same as "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your feet". you will not falter, as we did not. the people of iran did not falter. there have been so many pressures, so many plots, so many cruelties and so much unfairness, but the people of iran did not change their minds. this is one of the divine traditions.

a holy ayah in the holy quran says, "have you not considered how allah sets forth a parable o ood word being like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven, yielding its fruit in every season by the permission of its lord? [the holy quran, 14: 24-25]. a good word, a good action and a pure deed - one that is for god - prevails. it will grow roots, it will become strong and it will yield fruits. the islamic republic is that good word. it has been preserved like the good tree and it has become stronger. today, the islamic republic - as a system, government and a political entity - is not comparable with 30 years ago.

in the second ayah after these ayahs, god says, "allah will establish in strength those who believe, with the word that stands firm, in this world and in the hereafter" [the holy quran, 14: 27]. he will re-establish the same strength. these factors should be seen and they should be counted in our calculations. not all the factors in achieving happiness, sinking into misery, making progress, suffering from backwardness, achieving success and witnessing defeat are confined to the common worldly factors that materialistic people rely on. these spiritual factors exist alongside worldly factors as well.

what i want to say in this part of my speech - which is the main part - is that today, we should not make a mistake in our calculations. you should not let the enemy influence your calculation system. you should not let him tempt you. you should not let him influence you with his temptations or threats.

today, the battle between the islamic republic - which began with the victory of the revolution and which is continuing with the same strength - is the same battle that existed between the prophets and the shaitans of the time, who were from among men and jinns. we are after lofty ideals. we are after forming an islamic community, an islamic government, an islamic country and an islamic ummah. we are after achieving the goals that great prophets, saints and martyrs pursued.

and the anic regimes of the time have formed one front and they are naturally opposed to such a movement. this is why they create obstacles and make threats. despite the glamour of this front and its superficial and material splendor, this divine and prophet-like movement is taking its path and moving forward. it is exerting influence and it is expanding and developing on a daily basis.

today, what we witness in the behavior of global arrogance is this. its goal is to create disruption in our calculation system. in other arenas, arrogance has failed. it has failed to do anything. in real arenas, only two material factors have been available to the p of arrogance: one is military threats and another is sanctions. arrogance has nothing except for these two things. the hands of arrogance are tied in terms of the power of reason and logic and the capability to prove its legitimacy. it can only carry out two tasks: one is to issue military threats - this is a task that it constantly carries out - and another is to impose sanctions.

and there are two cures for these. sanctions can be counteracted with diligence in the area of the economy of resistance. the points that the honorable president raised today had been raised by him before and they are completely true. economic plans should be prepared, pursued and implemented with the umption that sanctions will remain there.

imagine that sanctions will not be lifted at all. well, this is what they themselves are saying as well. they too say that sanctions will not be touched. even from this moment, they have begun saying, "even if we reach a deal on the nuclear issue, it does not mean that all sanctions will be lifted. there are still other issues to be resolved".

this is what we have always said. i have repeatedly said in this meeting and different other meetings that the nuclear issue is an excuse. even if the nuclear issue did not exist, they would make other excuses. for example, there is the issue of human rights and the issue of women. they fabricate many different issues. fabricating and making excuses is not a demanding job. moreover, the propaganda apparatus and empire is in their hands. therefore, the cure for the issue of sanctions is the economy of resistance. later on, i will discuss a few points in this regard.

as for the issue of military threats, there are very few people in today's world who take these military threats seriously. of course, the americans say, "the iranians do not take it seriously". but it is not only us who do not take it seriously. there are many people in the world who do not take this threat seriously. global spectators do not believe that this threat is a serious one because the opinion of global spectators and those who have a political awareness is that if it were economical for america to launch an attack, it would not hesitate even for one moment.

will these people be sad if some people are killed and if a crisis arises somewhere? are these people - who wholeheartedly supported a wolf named "saddam" for eight years, who hit a p enger plane while it was on air and while they had no excuse, and who destroyed and shed the blood of several hundred people including innocent and uninformed women, men and children - afraid of killing people? which of those people who created crises wherever they could and who staged color uprisings - as they say, color revolutions - are not led by arrogant powers? and these arrogant powers are headed by america.

they create crises inside countries and it does not matter to them whether these crises lead to murder and domestic wars or not. are those who attacked afghanistan and iraq, those who killed hundreds of thousands of people in iraq and those who killed people one by one in iraq and other cities of iraq under the command of intelligence services and mercenary and terrorist companies - such as blackwater which we spoke about once - afraid of killing people? are they afraid that other people may be killed? do they care about such things?

the issue is not that they make military threats because they do not want to [attack]. they constantly say, "israel issues military threats, but america prevents them from waging a war". well why does america prevent it from doing so? if this claim is true, what is the reason? is their conscience pricked if a country is attacked and a number of people are killed? the answer is no. the reason is that they do not consider waging a war to be economical. i firmly say that launching a military attack against the islamic republic of iran is not economical for any country.

today, the americans themselves criticize their attack on iraq. the important and noteworthy point is that they do not criticize it because it was a crime. rather, they say that it was not to the a ntage of america. that is to say, if it had been to the a ntage of america, it would have been alright. they do not say, "we made a mistake by killing people. we made a mistake by attacking innocent people. we made a mistake by letting our soldiers kick people's doors in. we made a mistake by letting them kill women and children in front of the eyes of people". they do not say such things.

in the present time, their soldiers suffer from psychological problems because of the crimes that were committed there, but they do not acknowledge this officially. rather, they say that the attack was not economical. so, the enemy is empty-handed both in the area of sanctions and in the area of military threats: "so, lose not heart, nor fall into despair for you must gain mastery if you are true in faith" [the holy quran, 3: 139]. if we believe in god, the enemy cannot do anything in real and practical arenas.

now that it cannot do anything in real arenas and now that his hands are empty in the area of influence, what is the enemy's cure? the cure is that it creates disruption in the calculation system of the other side - our calculation system. they are pursuing this task through propaganda, political work and different contacts. they know that the islamic republic is capable of achieving its goals. from their viewpoint, the islamic republic must not want this. if it wants it, it can achieve it. they want to do something to make us stop wanting. today, this is the effort of the world of arrogance which is headed by america. this is the same soft war that we have been speaking about since a few years ago. other people have spoken about, written and discussed it as well.

they cannot change our calculations. from the first day, the calculations of the islamic republic have been based on reason and logic. the elements that have formed these calculations are these: the first one is trust in god and the traditions of creation. the second one is distrusting the enemy and knowing him. one of the factors in reliance on god and the traditions of creation is trust in the people and their faith, trust in affection and kindness, trust in pure motives, trust in the people's honesty - our magnanimous imam (r.a.) was the manifestation of this kind of trust - belief in self-confidence and the fact that we can, reliance on action, avoidance of idleness, trust in divine istance, reliance on responsibility and effort on the path of responsibility.

from the first day until today, these have been the things that have formed the basis and the infrastructure of the elements of the reasonable islamic republic. you should refer to imam's (r.a.) statements. his statements are imbued with these concepts and teachings: benefitting from experience - including the way arrogant powers have behaved towards weak nations - and diligence for the sake of independence, remaining independent and living in an independent way.

what does independence mean? some people find faults with the essence and meaning of independence? they ask, "what does such independence mean?" independence means freedom from the will of foreigners and other people. this is the meaning of independence. can any reasonable mind deny this? the meaning of independence is that a people should be able to determine their own fate.

this country did not enjoy independence for many years. the quasi-independence that existed was political. but the key of the government and the country was in the hands of other people. it was they who made the decisions. it was they who did everything. there were some people inside the country some of whom were attached to them and some of whom were not very attached to them, but they had to follow them. independence is resistance against such a condition.

well, arrogance is opposed to this reason. if someone thinks that the name of islam makes them oppose the islamic republic, they should know that this is not the case. the name of islam and islamic practices and obligations do not make anyone show opposition.

once, imam (r.a.) said in one of his speeches, "when the english entered and occupied iraq in the second decade of the 20th century, an english commander saw someone shouting and raising his voice. he be e nervous. someone was saying adhan from a minaret. he asked, "what is this noise?" they said, "he is saying adhan". then he asked, "is it against us?" someone replied, "no, it is not". he said, "ok, let him say whatever he wants". he did not care for the kind of adhan which was not against him and the kind of "allahu akbar" which did not humiliate him.

so, the issue is not the issue of islam and islamic obligations. today, some countries carry the name of islam and they observe islamic obligations more or less, but their oil, their supplies and their vital resources are in the hands of arrogance. and the enemies do not show any opposition to such countries. on the contrary, they have friendly relations with them.

recently, i read something interesting somewhere. an american expert has said, "reconciliation between iran and america is possible, but it is not possible between the islamic republic and america". he is right. not only is reconciliation with the kind of iran that is led by the pahlavi family - which makes everything available to the americans - possible, but it is also necessary. it is even necessary to do something beyond reconciliation for this kind of iran. the issue is the issue of the islamic republic. the islamic republic means independence, freedom, commitment to islamic faith, movement on the path of islam, refusal to give in to the enemies' impositions and invitation to the unity of the islamic ummah.

this is the exact opposite of what they want. of course, they are unfriendly towards this kind of iran. well, this was the main issue that i wanted to discuss: we should not forget about self-confidence, faith and action. we should not forget about resistance against laziness, carelessness, idleness and exhaustion. these are the lessons of the month of ramadan.

i would like to offer some pieces of advice. one piece of advice is addressed to all officials. taking a look at the political conditions of the world and the region shows us that we are at a sensitive point. you should know that today, there is a historical turn in the real sense of the word. if you are not strong, you will be bullied not only by america and the west but also by a creature named saddam. if you are not strong, you will be bullied and you will suffer from their impositions. you should be strong.

what are the elements of strength? how can we understand and accept that we are strong? these are the elements of strength: high morale, hopefulness, hard work and diligence, identifying economic, cultural and security rifts - you should identify and see these rifts - cooperation between different organizations in charge of affairs and cooperation between these organizations and the people. this is one piece of advice which is addressed to everyone.

the second piece of advice is that you should work as hard as you can and as long as you have opportunities. opportunities are limited. all of us are individuals who are moving towards death. we have limited time. we should work as hard as we can and as long as we are alive. you should not say, "they do not allow us to do things". this "they do not allow us" is not an acceptable statement. many people used to say, "they do not allow us". now too, some people say this. what does "they do not allow us" mean? you have certain capabilities and resources in the majlis, in the administration, in the judiciary branch, in the armed forces and in the different sectors which are affiliated with the administration. you should benefit from these resources and work as hard as you can. you should not even allow one single moment to be wasted.

the third piece of advice is that you should coordinate your moves with the principles of the revolution. you should avoid creating uproar and you should attend to solving the problems of the people. the fourth piece of advice is that you should consider departmental convergence and convergence with other branches to be important.

i always advise the honorable officials in charge of the three branches of government to hold meetings with one another. many issues are resolved in these joint meetings such as meetings between the administration and the majlis, meetings between the judiciary branch and the administration and meetings between the judiciary branch and the majlis. these meetings and these exchanges of opinion lead to convergence. another issue is the issue of jihadi mana ent. this piece of advice is related to everyone.

i would like to offer a piece of advice to the administration and the executive branch in particular. first, everyone should know that i support the administration, as i supported all previous administrations. i trust the high-ranking executive officials. all the administrations that held office after the revolution have been elected by the people and since i have been entrusted with the task of leadership, i have supported all these administrations.

all administrations have certain strong points and certain weak points. there is no administration that says, "i have only strong points and i do not have any weak point". and there is no one who says, "all its activities are negative". this is not the case. all administrations have a combination of strong and weak points.

of course, compared to previous administrations, it is better to make criticisms in a well-informed way. it is not appropriate to make criticisms in public. the criticisms that we level at the administration should be fair, respectful and sympathetic. criticism should not mean catching someone red-handed and creating obstacles for them.

second, i would like to say to executive officials that they should take the economy of resistance seriously. well, the honorable president said that he will do this. other officials too have said this more or less, but it there should be action: "and among those who rely on things other than action". it should not be the case that we say, "we will do this", but we act slowly. the focus of the economy of resistance is on increasing domestic production and strengthening the domestic economy. this leads to economic progress. economic progress is achieved with production. it is achieved by activating the domestic capacities of the country. it is not achieved with anything else.

an important piece of advice on the issue of the economy of resistance is addressed to banks. banks should play their roles. they should coordinate their activities with the policies on the economy of resistance and with the administration's plans in this area. they can play their roles - positive roles. of course, they can play a negative role as well.

i would like to offer a very important piece of advice to the industrial sector. the officials in charge of this sector should make efforts. they should increase their efforts and they should identify the capacities. there are many capacities in the country and they should activate them.

as for the agricultural sector, agriculture has a vital significance. it is necessary for the administration and governmental policies to adopt a supportive outlook towards the agricultural sector. this supportive outlook exists all over the world. the agricultural sector is supported by governments. therefore, the existing problems in the area of agriculture should be removed. the problems of farmers and stockbreeders should be resolved. sometimes, we receive certain complaints in this regard. one becomes upset and sad about the problems that they have.

the third piece of advice for the administration: the administration's slogan is moderation. moderation is a very good slogan. we too stress moderation. extremism is condemned by us and it is bad. the piece of advice that i would like to offer is that you should take care not to let certain people sideline religious orientations with the slogan of moderation. some people are doing this and i see it on the political scene of the country. some people are trying to sideline those religious orientations that are prepared to face danger sooner than everyone else. they are doing this with the slogan of moderation and avoidance of extremism. it is these religious orientations that support administrations - in the real sense of the word - during problems.

islam is the manifestation of moderation: "and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but comp ionate amongst each other" [the holy quran, 48: 29]. this is moderation. "fight the unbelievers who gird you about" [the holy quran, 9: 123]. this is moderation. enjoining to do good and forbiudding evil is moderation as well. moderation is comprised of such things. the meaning of moderation is not that we prevent religious individuals, orientations and groups from doing things that they are responsible for.

another piece of advice is addressed to political orientations and the press. i have a piece of advice for the brothers and officials in charge of political organizations and the press. you should be careful. a tumultuous environment is not to the a ntage of the country. some individuals should not get on the people's nerves. one witnesses that these people do such things. psychological security is important for the people. they should not reinforce the environment of quarrels and differences. they should not repeat the enemies' statements either.

i read many newspapers every day, as i read many other things. sometimes, there are certain statements and headlines in newspapers that are perfect for such and such an american newspaper. surprisingly, such statements exist in american and non-american newspapers as well and these newspapers are sent for us. you should be careful. such statements and headlines are not appropriate.

a sensitive issue that exists in the present time is the nuclear issue. the statements that the honorable president made today were very good and correct. the other side has offered us two options: death or fever. it wants to force us into accepting the latter. for example, on the issue of enrichment, their goal is to make the islamic republic isfied with 10,000 swus. but they have begun from 500, 1000. approximately, 10,000 swus are the product of 10,000 centrifuges - the ones that we already have. this is their goal. officials tell us that we need about 190,000 swus. it is possible that we will not need this number of swus this year and in two, five years from now, but this is the definite need of the country. and the needs of the country should be met.

the statements that the americans make on this issue are untruthfull. a country needs nuclear energy. it has managed to achieve this science and technology on its own, with its own efforts and follow-up, without stealing it from others and without colluding with other people. now, they are persisting that we should not have it. well, why? what are the reasons behind this "we should not".

they say that they are afraid of a nuclear bomb. first, non-proliferation has its own ways and this is alright. second, if someone is supposed to be concerned about the issue of nuclear weapons, that someone is not america. america itself has several thousand nuclear warheads and nuclear bombs and it has used them. well, what is it to you? who are you to be concerned whether a country will have access to a nuclear weapon or not? however, we can give guarantees to those organizations that are in charge of such affairs. of course, these guarantees have already been given. that is to say, it is clear that we are not after nuclear weapons. perhaps, they themselves know this as well. so, the essence of what they are saying is untruthfull.

of course, we believe in our negotiating team. we are sure that they will not be isfied with transgression against the rights and dignity of the country and the people. we are sure that they will not allow this to happen. the issue of enrichment is an important issue. moreover, the issue of research and development should definitely receive attention. another issue is preserving the organizations and sites that the enemy cannot destroy. they place emphasis on fordo because it is not accessible to them. they say, "you should not have a site that we cannot destroy and harm". is this not ridiculous?

the last issue is the issue of the region and iraq which is, in fact, a fitna. by allah's favor, the religious people of iraq will manage to extinguish and destroy this fitna. by allah's favor, regional nations will move towards growth and material and spiritual transcendence on a daily basis.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make what we said and heard serve you and your path. accept from us what we said and heard. dear god, help us succeed in making efforts, showing diligence and doing sincere work.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), bestow on us the requirements for isfying you. do not deprive us of your mercy and forgiveness in this auspicious month. ociate the pure souls of martyrs and the immaculate soul of our magnanimous imam (r.a.) with your saints.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make us be among your thankful and patient servants.

greetings be upon you and allah's mercy and blessings


"real madrid" redirects here. for the basketball team, see real madrid baloncesto. for other uses, see real madrid (disambiguation).real madridfull namereal madrid club de fútbol[1]nickname(s)los blancos (the whites) los merengues (the meringues) los vikingos (the vikings)[2]founded6 march 1902; 112 years ago (1902-03-06) as madrid football club[3]groundsantiago bernabéu stadiumground capacity85,454[4]presidentflorentino pérezmanagercarlo ancelotti[5]leaguela liga2012–13la liga, 2ndwebsiteclub home pagehome coloursaway coloursthird colours current season
real madrid club de fútbol (spanish pronunciation: [reˈal maˈðɾið ˈkluβ ðe ˈfuðβol]; royal madrid football club), commonly known as real madrid, or simply as real, is a professional football club based in madrid, spain.
founded in 1902 as madrid football club, the team has traditionally worn a white home kit since. the word real is spanish for royal and was bestowed to the club by king alfonso xiii in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem. the team has played its home matches in the 85,454-capacity santiago bernabéu stadium in downtown madrid since 1947. unlike most european football clubs, real madrid's members (socios) have owned and operated the club since its inception.
the club is the world's richest football club in terms of revenue, with an annual turnover of €513 million, and the most valuable sports team, worth €2.4 billion (us$3.3 billion).[6][7][8] it is one of three clubs to have never been relegated from the top flight of spanish football, along with athletic bilbao and barcelona. real madrid holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably el clásico with fc barcelona and el derbi madrileño with atlético madrid.
the club established itself as a major force in both spanish and european football during the 1950s. domestically, real madrid has won a record 32 la liga titles, 19 copas del rey, 9 supercopas de españa, 1 copa eva duarte and 1 copa de la liga.[9] internationally it has won a record nine european cup/uefa champions league titles and a joint record three intercontinental cups, as well as two uefa cups, and one uefa super cup.
contents [hide] 1 history 1.1 early years (1897–1945)1.2 santiago bernabéu yeste and european success (1945–78)1.3 quinta del buitre and seventh european cup (1980–2000)1.4 los galácticos (2000–2006)1.5 new president ramón calderón (2006–2009)1.6 second pérez term and the mourinho era (2009–13)1.7 the ancelotti era (2013–present)2 crest and colours 2.1 emblem evolution3 kit manufacturers and shirt sponsors4 grounds5 records and statistics6 support7 rivalries 7.1 el clásico7.2 el derbi madrileño8 finances and ownership9 popular culture 9.1 real madrid tv10 players11 current squad 11.1 out on loan12 personnel 12.1 current technical staff12.2 mana ent13 honours 13.1 domestic competitions13.2 european competitions13.3 worldwide competitions14 see also15 references16 further reading17 external links
historymain article: history of real madrid c.f.early years (1897–1945) real madrid team in 1905
real madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to madrid by the academics and students of the institución libre de enseñanza, which included several bridge and oxford university graduates. they founded football club sky in 1897, playing on sunday mornings at moncloa. it split into two clubs in 1900: new foot-ball de madrid and club español de madrid.[10] on 6 march 1902, after a new board presided by juan padrós had been elected, madrid football club was officially founded.[3] three years after its foundation, in 1905, madrid fc won its first title after defeating athletic bilbao in the spanish cup final. the club be e one of the founding sides of the royal spanish football federation on 4 january 1909, when club president adolfo meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the spanish fa. after moving between grounds the team moved to the po de o'donnell in 1912.[11] in 1920, the club's name was changed to real madrid after king alfonso xiii granted the title of real (royal) to the club.[12] the then king of spain alfonso xiii
in 1929, the first spanish football league was founded. real madrid led the first league season until the last match, a loss to athletic bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to barcelona.[13] real madrid won its first league title in the 1931–32 season. real won the league again the following year, becoming the first side to have won the championship twice.[14]
on 14 april 1931, the arrival of the second spanish republic caused the club to lose the title real and went back to being named madrid football club. football continued during the second world war, and on 13 june 1943 madrid beat barcelona 11–1 in the second leg of a semi-final[15] of the copa del generalísimo, the copa del rey having been renamed in honour of general franco. it has been suggested that barcelona players were intimidated by police,[16] including by the director of state security who "allegedly told the team that some of them were only playing because of the regime's generosity in permitting them to remain in the country."[17](p26) the barcelona chairman, enric piñeyro, was aulted by madrid fans.[18](p284)santiago bernabéu yeste and european success (1945–78) alfredo di stéfano, led the club to win five european cups consecutively (currently, the champions league)
santiago bernabéu yeste be e president of real madrid in 1945.[19] under his presidency, the club, its stadium santiago bernabéu and its training facilities ciudad deportiva were rebuilt after the spanish civil war damages. additionally, during the 1950s former real madrid amateurs player miguel malbo founded real madrid's youth academy, or "cantera", known today as la fábrica.[20] beginning in 1953, he embarked upon a strategy of signing world-cl players from abroad, the most prominent of them being alfredo di stéfano.[21]
in 1955, acting upon the idea proposed by the french sports journalist and editor of l'équipe gabriel hanot, bernabéu, bedrignan and gusztáv sebes created an exhibition tournament of invited teams from around europe that would eventually become what today is known as the uefa champions league.[22] it was under bernabéu's guidance that real madrid established itself as a major force in both spanish and european football. the club won the european cup five times in a row between 1956 and 1960, which included the 7–3 hampden park final against eintracht frankfurt in 1960.[21] after these five consecutive successes, real was permanently awarded the original cup and earning the right to wear the uefa badge of honour.[23] the club won the european cup for a sixth time in 1966 defeating partizan belgrade 2–1 in the final with a team composed entirely of same nationality players, a first in the competition.[24] this team be e known as the yé-yé. the name "ye-yé" e from the "yeah, yeah, yeah" chorus in the beatles' song "she loves you" after four members of the team posed for diario marca dressed in beatles wigs. the ye-yé generation was also european cup runner-up in 1962 and 1964.[24]
in the 1970s, real madrid won five league championships and three spanish cups.[25] the club played its first uefa cup winners' cup final in 1971 and lost to english side chelsea 2–1.[26] on 2 july 1978, club president santiago bernabéu died while the world cup was being played in argentina. the international federation of ociation football (fifa) decreed three days of mourning to honour him during the tournament.[27] the following year, the club organized the first edition of the trofeo santiago bernabéu in the memory of its former president.quinta del buitre and seventh european cup (1980–2000)
by the early 1980s, real madrid had lost its grasp on the la liga title until a new batch of home-grown stars brought domestic success back to the club.[28] spanish sport journalist julio césar iglesias gave to this generation the name la quinta del buitre ("vulture's cohort"), which was derived from the nickname given to one of its members, emilio butragueño. the other four members were manuel sanchís, martín vázquez, míchel and miguel pardeza; all five footballers were graduates of real madrid's youth academy.[29] with la quinta del buitre (reduced to four members when pardeza left the club for zaragoza in 1986) and notable players like goalkeeper francisco buyo, right-back miguel porlán chendo and mexican striker hugo sánchez, real madrid had one of the best teams in spain and europe during the second half of the 1980s, winning two uefa cups, five spanish championships in a row, one spanish cup and three spanish super cups.[29] in the early 1990s, la quinta del buitre split up after martín vázquez, emilio butragueño and míchel left the club.
in 1996, president lorenzo sanz appointed fabio capello as coach. although his tenure lasted only one season, real madrid was proclaimed league champion and players like roberto carlos, predrag mijatović, davor šuker and clarence seedorf arrived at the club to strengthen a squad that already boasted the likes of raúl, fernando hierro, iván zamorano, and fernando redondo. as a result, real madrid (with the addition of fernando morientes in 1997) finally ended its 32-year wait for its seventh european cup. in 1998, under manager jupp heynckes, the whites defeated juventus 1–0 in the final thanks to a goal from predrag mijatović.[30]los galácticos (2000–2006)for more details on this topic, see galáctico. beckham and zidane were considered "galácticos"
in july 2000, florentino pérez was elected club president.[31] he vowed in his paign to erase the club's 270 million euro debt and modernize the club's facilities. however, the primary electoral promise that propelled pérez to victory was the signing of luís figo.[32] the following year, the club got its training ground rezoned and used the money to begin embling the famous galáctico side including players such as zinédine zidane, ronaldo, luís figo, roberto carlos, raúl, fabio cannavaro and david beckham. it is debatable whether the gamble paid off, as despite a uefa champions league and an intercontinental cup (football) win in 2002, followed by the league in 2003, the club failed to win a major trophy for the next three seasons.[33]
the few days after the capturing of the league title were surrounded with controversy. the first controversial decision e when perez sacked winning coach vicente del bosque, after real's sporting director claimed that del bosque was not the right man for the job; they wanted someone young to shake up the team.[citation needed] the bad atmosphere continued when the real legend and captain fernando hierro left the club after a disagreement with the mana ent, as did steve mcmanaman.[citation needed] however, the club toured asia in pre-season and introduced newly signed david beckham. perez and his directors refused to renew claude makélélé's contract with a better salary, upsetting makelele who asked for a transfer, eventually moving to chelsea f.c..[citation needed] in the final days of the transfer window, fernando morientes left the club on loan to monaco.[citation needed] real madrid, with newly appointed coach carlos queiroz, started their domestic league slowly after a hard win over real betis.[citation needed]
the 2005–06 season began with the promise of several new signings — julio baptista (€20 million), robinho (€30 million) and sergio ramos (€30 million – release clause) —[citation needed] but the portuguese coach was not able to find the right formula on the pitch as real madrid's poor form continued, with the team hitting rock bottom after a humiliating 0–3 loss at the hands of f.c. barcelona in the santiago bernabéu.[citation needed] luxemburgo would eventually resign and his replacement was juan ramón lópez caro, formally the manager of real madrid castilla.[citation needed] a brief return to form e to an abrupt halt after losing the first leg of the copa del rey quarterfinal, 6–1 to real zaragoza.[citation needed] shortly after, real madrid were eliminated from the champions league for a fourth successive year, this time at the hands of arsenal. on 27 february 2006, florentino pérez resigned.[34]new president ramón calderón (2006–2009) real madrid's players celebrate their 2008 supercopa de españa title win against valencia.
ramón calderón was elected as club president on 2 july 2006 and subsequently appointed fabio capello as the new coach and predrag mijatović as the new sporting director. real madrid won the la liga title in 2007 for the first time in four years but capello was sacked.[35] on 9 june 2007, real played against zaragoza at la romareda. the match got off to a bad start when real madrid were forced to change their lineup some minutes before the start of the match when young defender miguel torres tore his hamstring during warm-up.[citation needed] zaragoza led real 2–1 near the end of the match while barcelona were also winning against espanyol 2–1. real's title challenge looked to be over.[citation needed] however, a late ruud van nistelrooy equalizer followed by a last minute raúl tamudo goal sprang real madrid's title hopes back into their favour.[citation needed] sevilla were also held 0–0 away against mallorca, which meant that a win at home against mallorca would effectively secure los merengues their 30th spanish league title.[citation needed]
the title was won on 17 june, real faced mallorca at the bernabéu, while barcelona and sevilla, the other title challengers, faced gimnàstic de tarragona and villarreal respectively. at half time real were 0–1 down, while barcelona had surged ahead into a 0–3 lead in tarragona; however, three goals in the last half-an-hour secured real madrid a 3–1 win and their first league title since 2003. the first goal e from reyes who scored after a good work from higuaín. an own goal followed by another goal from reyes allowed real to begin celebrating the title. thousands of real madrid fans began going to plaza de cibeles to celebrate the title.[citation needed]second pérez term and the mourinho era (2009–13) cristiano ronaldo, the first player ever to score against every team in a single season in la liga
on 1 june 2009, florentino pérez regained real madrid's presidency.[36][37] pérez continued with the galácticos policy pursued in his first term, buying kaká from milan,[38] and then purchasing cristiano ronaldo from manchester united for a record breaking £80 million.
josé mourinho took over as manager in may 2010.[39][40] in april 2011, a strange occurrence happened when, for the first time ever, four clásicos were to be played in a span of eighteen days. the first fixture was for the liga paign on 17 april (which ended 1–1 with penalty goals for both sides), the copa del rey final (which ended 1–0 to madrid), and the controversial two-legged champions league semifinal on 27 april and 2 may (3–1 loss on aggregate) to barcelona.
the first clasico saw cristiano ronaldo get his first goal against barcelona due to a penalty given to madrid after a foul to marcelo. the copa del rey final gave real madrid its first title under mourinho with a header from cristiano ronaldo in extra time. the champions league semifinal was perhaps the most controversial of the four, with the expulsion of pepe in the first leg at the santiago bernabéu, after an alleged "dangerous challenge" to barcelona defender daniel alves. alves was carried out in a stretcher "unable to walk", but after pepe was shown red, alves e running back into the field within seconds. after pepe's sending off, coach josé mourinho was also sent off, receiving a fine and a five-match ban. this same match was also controversial in that barcelona midfielder sergio busquets being captured on video saying what seemed like a supposed racial slur to madrid left-back marcelo. the second leg was not as controversial as the first, with perhaps the exception of an annulled goal to gonzalo higuaín, after cristiano ronaldo was deemed to have fouled javier mascherano as a result of a foul to ronaldo by gerard piqué.[41]
in the 2011–12 la liga season, real madrid won the league, a record 32nd time in la liga history and finished the season with a number of records including 100 points in a single season, a record 121 goals scored & goal difference of +89, and a record 16 away wins and 32 overall wins.[42] in the same season, cristiano ronaldo become the fastest player to reach 100 goals in spanish league history. in reaching 101 goals in 92 games, ronaldo surp ed real madrid legend ferenc puskás, who scored 100 goals in 105 games. ronaldo set a new club mark for individual goals scored in one year (60), and be e the first player ever to score against all 19 opposition teams in a single season.[43][44]
real madrid began the 2012-13 season by winning the supercopa de españa, defeating barcelona on away goals, but finished as second in the league competition. a major transfer of the season was signing of luka modrić, in the region of £33 million. in the champions league, they were drawn in the "group of death" along borussia dortmund, manchester city and ajax, finishing second with ten points behind dortmund. in the 16 round defeated manchester united, quarter-finals galatasaray, and reached third straight semifinal finish at the champions league, where were again stopped by dortmund. after a disappointing extra time loss to atlético madrid in the 2013 copa del rey final (which broke a 14-year skid for atleti), florentino perez announced the departure of mourinho at the end of the season by "mutual agreement".[45][46] mourinho returned to the english premier league with chelsea, a team he managed from 2004 to 2007.the ancelotti era (2013–present)
on 25 june 2013, carlo ancelotti be e the manager of real madrid, succeeding mourinho, by signing a three-year deal.[47][48] a day later, he was introduced at his first press conference for madrid where it was announced that both zinedine zidane and paul clement will be his istants.[49] on 1 september 2013, the long-awaited transfer of gareth bale was announced. the transfer of the welshman is reportedly the new world record signing, with the transfer price expected to be around €100 million.[50]crest and coloursemblem evolution
1902
1908
1920
1931
the first crest had a simple design consisting of a decorative interlacing of the three initials of the club, "mcf" for madrid club de fútbol, in dark blue on a white shirt. the first change in the crest occurred in 1908 when the letters adopted a more streamlined form and appeared inside a circle.[51] the next change in the configuration of the crest did not occur until the presidency of pedro parages in 1920. at that time, king alfonso xiii granted the club his royal patronage which e in the form of the title "real madrid", roughly translated as "royal".[52] thus, alfonso's crown was added to the crest and the club styled itself real madrid club de fútbol.[51]
with the dissolution of the monarchy in 1931, all the royal symbols (the crown on the crest and the title of real) were eliminated. the crown was replaced by the dark mulberry band of the region of castile.[14] in 1941, two years after the end of the civil war, the crest's "real corona", or "royal crown", was restored while the mulberry stripe of castile was retained as well.[19] in addition, the whole crest was made full color, with gold being the most prominent, and the club was again called real madrid club de fútbol.[51] the most recent modification to the crest occurred in 2001 when the club wanted to better situate itself for the 21st century and further standardize its crest. one of the modifications made was changing the mulberry stripe to a more bluish shade.[51]real madrid's first kit
real madrid's traditional home colours are all white, although before its foundation in the club first game against themselves they adopted a blue and a red oblique stripe on the shirt to differentiate the two teams (the club crest design has a purple stripe which isn't ociated to this. it was incorporated the year they lost the royal crown, as it the traditional region of castile colour); but unlike today, black socks were worn. lastly, the black socks will be replaced by dark blue ones.[13][53] real madrid has maintained the white shirt for its home kit throughout the history of the club. there was however one season that the shirt and shorts were not both white. it was an initiative undertaken by escobal and quesada in 1925, the two were traveling through england when they noticed the kit worn by london-based team corinthian f.c., one of the most famous teams at the time known for its elegance and sportsmanship. it was decided that real madrid would wear black shorts in an attempt to look like the english team but the initiative lasted only one year. after being eliminated from the cup by barcelona with a 1–5 defeat in madrid and a 2–0 defeat in catalonia, president parages decided to return to an all-white kit claiming that the other brought bad luck. years later, leeds united switched their blue shirt for a white one after marveling at real madrid's 7–3 victory against eintracht frankfurt in glasgow's hampden park.[54] by the early 1940s the manager changed the kit again by adding ons to the shirt and the club's crest on the left breast (which have remained ever since). on 23 november 1947, in a game against atlético madrid at the metropolitano stadium, real madrid be e the first spanish team to wear numbered shirts.[19]
real's traditional away colours are all blue or all purple. the club's kit is currently manufactured by adidas whose contract extends from 1998.[55][56] real madrid's first shirt sponsor, zanussi, agreed for the 1982–83, 1983–84 and 1984–85 seasons. following that, the club was sponsored by parmalat and otaysa before a long-term deal was signed with teka in 1992.[57][58] in 2001, real madrid ended their contract with teka and for one season used the realmadrid.com logo to promote the club's website. then, in 2002, a deal was signed with siemens mobile and in 2006, the benq siemens logo appeared on the club's shirt.[59] real madrid's current shirt sponsor is bwin.com following the economic problems of benq siemens.[60][61]kit manufacturers and shirt sponsorsperiodkit manufacturershirt partner1980–1982adidasnone1982–1985zanussi1985–1989hummelparmalat1989–1991reny picot1991–1992otaysa1992–1994teka1994–1998kelme1998–2001adidas2001–2002realmadrid.com*2002–2005siemens mobile2005–2006siemens2006–2007benq siemens2007–2011bwin2011–20132013–2018fly emirates
*realmadrid.com appeared as shirt sponsor to promote the club's new website.groundsmain articles: estadio chamartín, santiago bernabéu stadium, and alfredo di stéfano stadiumsantiago bernabéubroke ground27 october 1944opened14 december 1947architectmanuel muñoz monasterio, luis alemany soler, antonio lamelacapacity85,454field dimensions107 m × 72 m (351 ft × 236 ft)[62]
after moving between grounds the team moved to the po de o'donnell in 1912, which remained its home ground for eleven years.[11] after this period, the club moved for one year to the po de ciudad lineal, a small ground with a capacity of 8,000 spectators. after that, real madrid moved its home matches to estadio chamartín which was inaugurated on 17 may 1923 with a match against newcastle united.[63] in this stadium, which hosted 22,500 spectators, real madrid celebrated its first spanish league title.[13] after some successes, the 1943 elected president santiago bernabéu decided that the estadio chamartín was not big enough for the ambitions of the club. a new stadium was built and was inaugurated on 14 december 1947.[19][64] this was the santiago bernabéu stadium as it is known today, although it did not acquire this name until 1955.[21] the first match held on bernabéu was played between real madrid and the portuguese club belenenses and won by the whites with 3–1, the first goal being scored by sabino barinaga.[19]
the capacity has changed frequently, peaking at 120,000 after a 1953 expansion.[65][66] since then, there have been a number of reductions due to modernizations (the last standing places went away in 1998–99 in response to uefa regulations which forbids standing at matches in the uefa competition), countered to some extent by expansions.[65] the last change was an increase of about five thousand to a capacity of 85,454, effected in 2011. a plan to add a retractable roof has been announced.[67] real madrid has the fourth highest of the average attendances of european football clubs only behind borussia dortmund, fc barcelona, and manchester united.[68][69][70][71]
the bernabéu has hosted the 1964 european championship final, the 1982 fifa world cup final, the 1957, 1969 and 1980 european cup finals and the 2010 champions league final.[72] the stadium has its own madrid metro station along the 10 line called santiago bernabéu.[73] on 14 november 2007, the bernabéu has been upgraded to elite football stadium status by uefa.[74]
on 9 may 2006, the alfredo di stéfano stadium was inaugurated at the city of madrid where real madrid usually trains. the inaugural match was played between real madrid and stade reims, a rematch of the 1956 european cup final. real madrid won the match 6–1 with goals from sergio ramos, c ano (2), soldado (2), and jurado. the venue is now part of the ciudad real madrid, the club's new training facilities located outside madrid in valdebebas. the stadium holds 5,000 people and is real madrid castilla's home ground. it is named after former real footballer alfredo di stéfano.[75]records and statisticsmain article: list of real madrid c.f. records and statistics raúl is real madrid's all-time leader in goals scored and appearances.
raúl holds the record for most real madrid appearances, having played 741 first-team matches from 1994 to 2010. manuel sanchis, jr. comes second, having played 711 times.[76] the record for a goalkeeper is held by iker casillas, with 630 appearances. with 152 caps (all at the club), he's also real's most capped international player. while with 127 caps (47 while at the club), luís figo of portugal is real's most capped international non-spanish player.[77]
raúl is real's all-time top goalscorer, with 323 goals in 741 games (1994–2010).[78] four other players have also scored over 200 goals for real: alfredo di stéfano (1953–64), santillana (1971–88), ferenc puskás (1958–66) and hugo sánchez (1985–92). portuguese cristiano ronaldo holds the record for the most league goals scored in one season (46 in 2011–12). di stéfano's 49 goals in 58 matches was for decades the all-time highest tally in the european cup, until it was surp ed by raúl in 2005. the fastest goal in the history of the club (15 seconds) was scored by brazilian ronaldo on 3 december 2003 during a league match against atlético madrid.[79]
officially, the highest home attendance figure for a real madrid match is 83,329, which was for a football cup competition, copa del rey, in 2006. the current legal capacity of estadio santiago bernabéu is 80,354.[80] the club's average attendance in 2012–13 season was 71,368, the 4th highest in european leagues. real has also set records in spanish football, most notably the most domestic titles (32 as of 2012–13) and the most seasons won in a row (5, during 1960–65 and 1985–90).[81] with 121 matches (from 17 february 1957 to 7 march 1965), the club holds the record for longest unbeaten run at home in la liga.[82]
the whites also hold the record for winning the european cup/uefa champions league nine times[83] and for the most semi-final appearances (22). raúl gonzález is as of december 2011[update] the all-time uefa champions league top scorer, with 71 goals in total, 66 whilst playing for real madrid. the team has the record number of consecutive participations in the european cup (before it be e the champions league) with 15, from 1955–56 to 1969–70.[84]
in june 2009, the club broke its own record for the highest transfer fee ever paid in the history of football by agreeing to pay manchester united €96 million (us$131.5 million, £80 million) for the services of cristiano ronaldo.[85][86] the fee of €76 million (over $100 million, £45.8 million) for zinedine zidane's transfer from juventus to real madrid in 2001 was the previous highest transfer fee ever paid. this record had been broken previously in june 2009, for a few days, when real madrid agreed to buy kaká from a.c. milan. the transfer of the gareth bale, in 2013, is reportedly the new world record signing, with the transfer price expected to be around €100 million.[50] the club's record sale e on 2 september 2013, when arsenal signed mesut özil for €47 million.[87]support
during most home matches the majority of the seats in the stadium are occupied by season ticket holders, of which there are average of 68,670.[1] to become a season ticket holder one must first be a socio, or club member. in addition to members, the club has more than 1,800 peñas (official, club-affiliated supporters' groups) in spain and around the world. real madrid has the second highest average all-time attendance in spanish football and regularly attracts over 74,000 fans to santiago bernabéu; it was the second best-supported la liga team in the 2004–05 season, with an average gate of 71,900.[88] real madrid's hardcore supporters are the so-called ultras sur supporters. they are known for their extreme right-wing politics. the ultras sur have developed an alliance with other right wing groups, most notably s.s. lazio irriducibili fans. on several occasions they have racially abused opposing players, and have been investigated by uefa for doing so.[89][90]rivalriesel clásicomain article: el clásico barcelona players formed a guard of honour for real madrid as champions of the league.
there is often a fierce rivalry between the two strongest teams in a national league, and this is particularly the case in la liga, where the game between real madrid and barcelona is known as 'the cl ic' (el clásico). from the start of national competitions the clubs were seen as representatives of two rival regions in spain: catalonia and castile, as well as of the two cities. the rivalry reflects what many regard as the political and cultural tensions felt between catalans and the castilians, seen by one author as a re-enactment of the spanish civil war.[91] over the years, the record from real madrid and barcelona is 81 victories for madrid, 76 victories for barcelona, and 39 ties.[92]
during the dictatorships of primo de rivera and especially of francisco franco (1939–1975), all regional cultures were suppressed. all of the languages spoken in spanish territory, except spanish (castilian) itself, were officially banned.[93][94] symbolising the catalan people's desire for freedom, barcelona be e 'more than a club' (més que un club) for the catalans. according to manuel vázquez montalbán, the best way for the catalans to demonstrate their identity was by joining barcelona. it was less risky than joining a clandestine anti-franco movement, and allowed them to express their dissidence.[95]
on the other hand, real madrid was widely seen as the embodiment of the sovereign oppressive centralism and the fascist regime at mana ent level and beyond (santiago bernabéu, the former club president for whom the merengues stadium is named, fought with los nacionales).[96][97] however, during the spanish civil war, members of both clubs such as josep sunyol and rafael sánchez guerra suffered at the hands of franco supporters.
during the 1950s the rivalry was exacerbated further when there was a controversy surrounding the transfer of alfredo di stéfano, who finally played for real madrid and was key to their subsequent success.[98] the 1960s saw the rivalry reach the european stage when they met twice at the knock-out rounds of the european cup.[99] in 2002, the european encounter between the clubs was dubbed the "match of the century" by spanish media, and was watched by more than 500 million people.[100]el derbi madrileñomain article: el derbi madrileño real madrid supporters during the 2006 el derbi madrileño match held at santiago bernabéu.
the club's nearest neighbour is atlético madrid, a rivalry being shared between fans of both football teams. although atlético was originally founded by three basque students in 1903, it was joined in 1904 by dissident members of madrid fc. further tensions e because initially real supporters e from the middle cl while the atlético supporters were drawn from the working cl . today these distinctions are largely blurred. they met for the first time on 21 february 1929 in matchday three of the first league championship at the former chamartín. it was the first official derby of the new tournament, and real won 2–1.[13]
the rivalry first gained international attention in 1959 during the european cup when the two clubs met in the semi-final. real won the first leg 2–1 at the bernabéu while atlético won 1–0 at the metropolitano. the tie went to a replay and the whites won 2–1. atlético, however, gained some revenge when, led by former real madrid coach josé villalonga, it defeated the whites in two successive copa del generalísimo finals in 1960 and 1961.[101]
between 1961 and 1989, when real dominated la liga, only atlético offered it any serious challenge, winning liga titles in 1966, 1970, 1973 and 1977. in 1965, atlético be e the first team to beat real at the bernabéu in eight years. real madrid's record against atlético in more recent times is very favorable.[102] a high point coming in the 2002–03 season, when the whites clinched the la liga title after an impressive victory at atlético 0–4 at the vicente calderón stadium.[103]finances and ownership
it was under florentino pérez's first presidency (2000–2006) that real madrid started its ambition of becoming the world's richest professional football club.[104] the club ceded part of its training grounds to the city of madrid in 2001, and sold the rest to four corporations: repsol ypf, mutua automovilística de madrid, sacyr vallehermoso and ohl. the sale eradicated the club's debts, paving the way for it to buy the world's most expensive players such as zinédine zidane, luís figo, ronaldo and david beckham. the city had previously rezoned the training grounds for development, a move which in turn increased their value, and then bought the site.[33] the eu-commission started an investigation into whether the city overpaid for the property, to be considered a form of state subsidy.[105]
the sale of the training ground for office buildings cleared real madrid's debts of €270m and enabled the club to embark upon an unprecedented spending spree which brought big-name players to the club. in addition, profit from the sale was spent on a state-of-the-art training complex on the city's outskirts.[106] although pérez's policy resulted in increased financial success from the exploitation of the club's high marketing potential around the world, especially in asia, it e under increasing criticism for being too focused on marketing the real madrid brand, and not enough on the performances of the team.
by september 2007, real madrid was considered the most valuable football brand in europe by bbdo.[107] in 2008, it was ranked the second most valuable club in football, with a value of €951 mil (£640 million / $1.285 billion),[108] only beaten by manchester united, which was valued at €1.333 billion (£900 million).[109] in 2010, real madrid had the highest turnover in football worldwide.[110] in september 2009, real madrid's mana ent announced plans to open its own dedicated theme park by 2013.[111]
a study at harvard university concluded that real madrid "is one of the 20 most important brand names and the only one in which its executives, the players, are well-known. we have some spectacular figures in regard to worldwide support of the club. there are an estimated 287 million people worldwide who follow real madrid."[112] in 2010, forbes evaluated real madrid's worth to be around €992 million (usd $1,323 million), ranking them second after manchester united, based on figures from the 2008–09 season.[113][114] according to deloitte, real madrid had a recorded revenue of €401 million in the same period, ranking first.[115]
along with fc barcelona, athletic bilbao, and osasuna, real madrid is organised as a registered ociation. this means that real madrid is owned by its supporters who elect the clubs president. the club president cannot invest his own money into the club[116] it can only spend what it earns, this is mainly derived through merchandise sales, television rights and ticket sales. unlike a limited company, it is not possible to purchase shares in the club, but only membership.[117] the members of real madrid, called socios, form an embly of delegates which is the highest governing body of the club.[118] as of 2010 the club has 60,000 socios.[119] at the end of the 2009–10 season, the club board of directors of the club stated that real madrid had a net debt of €244.6 million, 82.1 million lower than the previous fiscal year. real madrid announced that it had a net debt of €170 million after the 2010–11 season.[120]
from 2007 to 2011 the club made a net profit of €190 million.[121][122]
during the 2009–10 season the real madrid made €150 million through ticket sales, which was the highest in top flight football.[121] real madrid has the highest number of shirt sales a season, around 1.5 million.[121]
for the 2010–11 season its wage bill totalled €169 million, which was second highest in europe behind fc barcelona.[123] however its wage bill to turnover ratio was the best in europe at 43%, ahead of manchester united and arsenal f.c. at 46% and 50% respectively.popular culture
real madrid was the featured club in the second edition of the goal! football movie trilogy, goal! 2: living the dream... (2007). the film follows former newcastle united star santiago muñez as he is first scouted, and then signed by real madrid for the 2005–06 season. the film's creators wanted to put emphasis on the changes in muñez's life after his move to madrid. production was done with the full support of uefa, allowing the film crew to use many real life players in eo roles. real madrid squad members featured in the film included iker casillas, zinedine zidane, david beckham, ronaldo, roberto carlos, raúl, sergio ramos, robinho, thomas gravesen, michael owen, míchel salgado, júlio baptista, steve mcmanaman, jonathan woodgate, and iván helguera. non-real madrid players to make eo appearances included ronaldinho, thierry henry, lionel messi, samuel eto'o, andrés iniesta, pablo aimar, fredrik ljungberg, cesc fàbregas, santiago cañizares and others. in the film, both florentino pérez and alfredo di stéfano presented the fictional player muñez to the club after his signing.[124]
real, the movie is a 2005 part feature, part documentary film that showcases the world-wide p ion for real madrid c.f. produced by the club and directed by borja manso, it follows five sub-stories of fans from around the world and their love for real madrid. along with the fictional portion of the film, it also contains real footage of the squad, during training at ciudad real madrid, matches, and interviews. although the film mentions all of the squad, it mainly focuses on galácticos such as david beckham, zinedine zidane, raúl, luís figo, ronaldo, iker casillas, and roberto carlos, among others. the film was originally produced in spanish, but has been dubbed for their world-wide fanbase.
the book white storm: 100 years of real madrid by phil ball was the first english-language history of real madrid. published in 2002, it talks about the most successful moments of the club during its first centenary, having been translated into various languages.
on 7 december 2011, real madrid released a dance adaptation of the club's anthem, "himno del real madrid", titled "everybody" as the first single from an upcoming album entitled the legends: the official real madrid digital album. it was created australian djs the stafford brothers.[125]real madrid tv
real madrid tv is an encrypted digital television channel, operated by real madrid specialising in the spanish football team. the channel is available in spanish and english. it is located at ciudad real madrid in valdebebas (madrid), real madrid's training centre.playersmain article: list of real madrid c.f. playersfor a list of all former and current real madrid c.f. players with a wikipedia article, see category:real madrid c.f. players.
spanish teams are limited to three players without eu citizenship. the squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-european players on the squad have dual citizenship with an eu country. also, players from the acp countries—countries in africa, the caribbean, and the pacific that are signatories to the cotonou agreement—are not counted against non-eu quotas due to the kolpak ruling.see real madrid squad 2013–14current squadas of 31 january 2014[126]
note: flags indicate national team as has been defined under fifa eligibility rules. players may hold more than one non-fifa nationality.no.positionplayer1gkiker casillas (captain)[127]2df haël varane3dfpepe (vice-captain)[128]4dfsergio ramos (vice-captain)[127]5dffábio coentrão6mfsami khedira7fwcristiano ronaldo9fwkarim benzema11mfgareth bale12dfmarcelo (vice-captain)[127]13gkjesús fernández14mfxabi alonsono.positionplayer15dfdaniel carvajal16mfcasemiro17dfálvaro arbeloa18dfnacho fernández19mfluka modrić20fwjesé21fwálvaro morata22mfángel di maría23mfisco24mfasier illarramendi25gkdiego lópezout on loan
note: flags indicate national team as has been defined under fifa eligibility rules. players may hold more than one non-fifa nationality.no.positionplayer—mfnuri şahin (at borussia dortmund)no.positionplayer—mfdenis cheryshev (at sevilla)personnelcurrent technical staff current manager: italian carlo ancelottisee also: list of real madrid c.f. managerspositionhead coachcarlo ancelotti istant coachzinedine zidane istant coachpaul clementgoalkeeping coachwilliam vecchifitness coachdavide ancelottifitness coachfrancesco maurifitness coachgiovanni maurimatch delegatechendolast updated: 26 june 2013source: real madridmana entsee also: list of real madrid c.f. presidents spanish businessman florentino pérez is the current president of the clubpositionstaffpresidentflorentino pérezhonorary life presidentalfredo di stéfano1st vice-presidentfernando fernández tapias2nd vice-presidenteduardo fernández de bl ecretary of the boardenrique sánchez gonzálezdirector generaljosé ángel sánchezdirector of the president's officemanuel redondodirector of the social areajosé luis sánchez

xylem

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schematic cross section of part of a leaf, xylem shown as red circles at figure 8.

xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. the word xylem is derived from the greek word ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood"; the best-known xylem tissue is wood, though it is found throughout the plant.

the basic function of xylem is to transport water, but it also transports some nutrients.

structure[edit]

cross section of some xylem cells
cross section of some xylem cells

the most distinctive xylem cells are the long tracheary elements that transport water. tracheids and vessel elements are distinguished by their shape; vessel elements are shorter, and are connected together into long tubes that are called vessels.[1]

xylem also contains two other cell types: parenchyma and fibers.[2]

xylem can be found:

in transitional stages of plants with secondary growth, the first two categories are not mutually exclusive, although usually a vascular bundle will contain primary xylem only.

the branching pattern exhibited by xylem follows murray's law.[3]

primary and secondary xylem[edit]

primary xylem is the xylem that is formed during primary growth from pro bium. it includes protoxylem and metaxylem. metaxylem develops after the protoxylem but before secondary xylem. metaxylem has wider vessels and tracheids than protoxylem.

secondary xylem is the xylem that is formed during secondary growth from vascular bium. although secondary xylem is also found in members of the "gymnosperm" groups gnetophyta and ginkgophyta and to a lesser extent in members of the cycadophyta, the two main groups in which secondary xylem can be found are:

  1. conifers (coniferae): there are some six hundred species of conifers. all species have secondary xylem, which is relatively uniform in structure throughout this group. many conifers become tall trees: the secondary xylem of such trees is used and marketed as softwood.
  2. angiosperms (angiospermae): there are some quarter of a million to four hundred thousand species of angiosperms. within this group secondary xylem is rare in the monocots.[4] many non-monocot angiosperms become trees, and the secondary xylem of these is used and marketed as hardwood.

main function – upwards water transport[edit]

the xylem transports water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. it is also used to replace water lost during transpiration and p osynthesis. xylem sap consists mainly of water and inorganic ions, although it can contain a number of organic chemicals as well. the transport is p ive, not powered by energy spent by the tracheary elements themselves, which are dead by maturity and no longer have living contents. two phenomena cause xylem sap to flow:

  • transpirational pull: the most important cause of xylem sap flow is the evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells to the atmosphere. this causes millions of minute menisci to form in the mesophyll cell wall. the resulting surface tension causes a negative pressure or tension in the xylem that pulls the water from the roots and soil.
  • root pressure: if the water potential of the root cells is more negative than that of the soil, usually due to high concentrations of solute, water can move by osmosis into the root from the soil. this causes a positive pressure that forces sap up the xylem towards the leaves. in some circumstances, the sap will be forced from the leaf through a hydathode in a phenomenon known as guttation. root pressure is highest in the morning before the stomata open and allow transpiration to begin. different plant species can have different root pressures even in a similar environment; examples include up to 145 kpa in vitis riparia but around zero in celastrus orbiculatus.[5]

the primary force that creates the capillary action movement of water upwards in plants is the adhesion between the water and the surface of the xylem conduits.[6][7] capillary action provides the force that establishes an equilibrium configuration, balancing gravity. when transpiration removes water at the top, the flow is needed to return to the equilibrium.

transpirational pull results from the evaporation of water from the surfaces of cells in the leaves. this evaporation causes the surface of the water to recess into the pores of the cell wall. by capillary action, the water forms concave menisci inside the pores. the high surface tension of water pulls the concavity outwards, generating enough force to lift water as high as a hundred meters from ground level to a tree's highest branches.

transpirational pull requires that the vessels transporting the water are very small in diameter, otherwise cavitation would break the water column. and as water evaporates from leaves, more is drawn up through the plant to replace it. when the water pressure within the xylem reaches extreme levels due to low water input from the roots (if, for example, the soil is dry), then the gases come out of solution and form a bubble – an embolism forms, which will spread quickly to other adjacent cells, unless bordered pits are present (these have a plug-like structure called a torus, that seals off the opening between adjacent cells and stops the embolism from spreading).

cohesion-tension theory[edit]

the cohesion-tension theory is a theory of intermolecular attraction that explains the process of water flow upwards (against the force of gravity) through the xylem of plants. it was proposed in 1894 by john joly and henry horatio dixon.[8] despite numerous objections,[9][10] this is the most widely accepted theory for the transport of water through a plant's vascular system based on the cl ical research of dixon-joly (1894), askenasy (1895),[11] and dixon (1914,1924).[12][13]

water is a polar molecule. when two water molecules approach one another, the slightly negatively charged oxygen atom of one forms a hydrogen bond with a slightly positively charged hydrogen atom in the other. this attractive force, along with other intermolecular forces, is one of the principal factors responsible for the occurrence of surface tension in liquid water. it also allows plants to draw water from the root through the xylem to the leaf.

water is constantly lost through transpiration from the leaf. when one water molecule is lost another is pulled along by the processes of cohesion and tension. transpiration pull, utilizing capillary action and the inherent surface tension of water, is the primary mechanism of water movement in plants. however, it is not the only mechanism involved. any use of water in leaves forces water to move into them.

transpiration in leaves creates tension (differential pressure) in the cell walls of mesophyll cells. because of this tension, water is being pulled up from the roots into the leaves, helped by cohesion (the pull between individual water molecules, due to hydrogen bonds) and adhesion (the stickiness between water molecules and the hydrophilic cell walls of plants). this mechanism of water flow works because of water potential (water flows from high to low potential), and the rules of simple diffusion.[14]

over the past century, there has been a great deal of research regarding the mechanism of xylem sap transport; today, most plant scientists continue to agree that the cohesion-tension theory best explains this process, but multiforce theories that hypothesize several alternative mechanisms have been suggested, including longitudinal cellular and xylem osmotic pressure gradients, axial potential gradients in the vessels, and gel- and gas-bubble-supported interfacial gradients.[15][16]

measurement of pressure[edit]

a diagram showing the setup of a pressure bomb

until recently, the differential pressure (suction) of transpirational pull could only be measured indirectly, by applying external pressure with a pressure bomb to counteract it.[17] when the technology to perform direct measurements with a pressure probe was developed, there was initially some doubt about whether the cl ic theory was correct, because some workers were unable to demonstrate negative pressures. more recent measurements do tend to validate the cl ic theory, for the most part. xylem transport is driven by a combination of transpirational pull from above and root pressure from below, which makes the interpretation of measurements more complicated.

evolution[edit]

xylem appeared early in the history of terrestrial plant life. fossil plants with anatomically preserved xylem are known from the silurian (more than 400 million years ago), and trace fossils resembling individual xylem cells may be found in earlier ordovician rocks. the earliest true and recognizable xylem consists of tracheids with a helical-annular reinforcing layer added to the cell wall. this is the only type of xylem found in the earliest vascular plants, and this type of cell continues to be found in the protoxylem (first-formed xylem) of all living groups of plants. several groups of plants later developed pitted tracheid cells, it seems, through convergent evolution. in living plants, pitted tracheids do not appear in development until the maturation of the metaxylem (following the protoxylem).

in most plants, pitted tracheids function as the primary transport cells. the other type of tracheary element, besides the tracheid, is the vessel element. vessel elements are joined by perforations into vessels. in vessels, water travels by bulk flow, as in a pipe, rather than by diffusion through cell membranes. the presence of vessels in xylem has been considered to be one of the key innovations that led to the success of the angiosperms.[18] however, the occurrence of vessel elements is not restricted to angiosperms, and they are absent in some archaic or "basal" lineages of the angiosperms: (e.g., amborellaceae, tetracentraceae, trochodendraceae, and winteraceae), and their secondary xylem is described by arthur cronquist as "primitively vesselless". cronquist considered the vessels of gnetum to be convergent with those of angiosperms.[19] whether the absence of vessels in basal angiosperms is a primitive condition is contested, the alternative hypothesis states that vessel elements originated in a precursor to the angiosperms and were subsequently lost.

p os showing xylem elements in the shoot of a fig tree (ficus alba): crushed in hydrochloric acid, between slides and cover slips.

to p osynthesize, plants must absorb co
2
from the atmosphere. however, this comes at a price: while stomata are open to allow co
2
to enter, water can evaporate.[20] water is lost much faster than co
2
is absorbed, so plants need to replace it, and have developed systems to transport water from the moist soil to the site of p osynthesis.[20] early plants ed water between the walls of their cells, then evolved the ability to control water loss (and co
2
acquisition) through the use of stomata. specialized water transport tissues soon evolved in the form of hydroids, tracheids, then secondary xylem, followed by an endodermis and ultimately vessels.[20]

the high co
2
levels of silurian-devonian times, when plants were first colonizing land, meant that the need for water was relatively low. as co
2
was withdrawn from the atmosphere by plants, more water was lost in its capture, and more elegant transport mechanisms evolved.[20] as water transport mechanisms, and waterproof cuticles, evolved, plants could survive without being continually covered by a film of water. this transition from poikilohydry to homoiohydry opened up new potential for colonization.[20] plants then needed a robust internal structure that held long narrow channels for transporting water from the soil to all the different parts of the above-soil plant, especially to the parts where p osynthesis occurred.

during the silurian, co
2
was readily available, so little water needed expending to acquire it. by the end of the carboniferous, when co
2
levels had lowered to something approaching today's, around 17 times more water was lost per unit of co
2
uptake.[20] however, even in these "easy" early days, water was at a premium, and had to be transported to parts of the plant from the wet soil to avoid desiccation. this early water transport took a ntage of the cohesion-tension mechanism inherent in water. water has a tendency to diffuse to areas that are drier, and this process is accelerated when water can be wicked along a fabric with small spaces. in small p ages, such as that between the plant cell walls (or in tracheids), a column of water behaves like rubber – when molecules evaporate from one end, they pull the molecules behind them along the channels. therefore transpiration alone provided the driving force for water transport in early plants.[20] however, without dedicated transport vessels, the cohesion-tension mechanism cannot transport water more than about 2 cm, severely limiting the size of the earliest plants.[20] this process demands a steady supply of water from one end, to maintain the chains; to avoid exhausting it, plants developed a waterproof cuticle. early cuticle may not have had pores but did not cover the entire plant surface, so that gas exchange could continue.[20] however, dehydration at times was inevitable; early plants cope with this by having a lot of water stored between their cell walls, and when it comes to it sticking out the tough times by putting life "on hold" until more water is supplied.[20]

a banded tube from the late silurian/early devonian. the bands are difficult to see on this specimen, as an opaque carbonaceous coating conceals much of the tube. bands are just visible in places on the left half of the image – click on the image for a larger view. scale bar: 20 μm

to be free from the constraints of small size and constant moisture that the parenchymatic transport system inflicted, plants needed a more efficient water transport system. during the early silurian, they developed specialized cells, which were lignified (or bore similar chemical compounds)[20] to avoid implosion; this process coincided with cell death, allowing their innards to be emptied and water to be p ed through them.[20] these wider, dead, empty cells were a million times more conductive than the inter-cell method, giving the potential for transport over longer distances, and higher co
2
diffusion rates.

the earliest macrofossils to bear water-transport tubes are silurian plants placed in the genus cooksonia.[21] the early devonian pretracheophytes aglaophyton and horneophyton have structures very similar to the hydroids of modern mosses. plants continued to innovate new ways of reducing the resistance to flow within their cells, thereby increasing the efficiency of their water transport. bands on the walls of tubes, in fact apparent from the early silurian onwards,[22] are an early improvi ion to aid the easy flow of water.[23] banded tubes, as well as tubes with pitted ornamentation on their walls, were lignified[24] and, when they form single celled conduits, are considered to be tracheids. these, the "next generation" of transport cell design, have a more rigid structure than hydroids, allowing them to cope with higher levels of water pressure.[20] tracheids may have a single evolutionary origin, possibly within the hornworts,[25] uniting all tracheophytes (but they may have evolved more than once).[20]

water transport requires regulation, and dynamic control is provided by stomata.[26] by adjusting the amount of gas exchange, they can restrict the amount of water lost through transpiration. this is an important role where water supply is not constant, and indeed stomata appear to have evolved before tracheids, being present in the non-vascular hornworts.[20]

an endodermis probably evolved during the silu-devonian, but the first fossil evidence for such a structure is carboniferous.[20] this structure in the roots covers the water transport tissue and regulates ion exchange (and prevents unwanted pathogens etc. from entering the water transport system). the endodermis can also provide an upwards pressure, forcing water out of the roots when transpiration is not enough of a driver.

once plants had evolved this level of controlled water transport, they were truly homoiohydric, able to extract water from their environment through root-like organs rather than relying on a film of surface moisture, enabling them to grow to much greater size.[20] as a result of their independence from their surroundings, they lost their ability to survive desiccation – a costly trait to retain.[20]

during the devonian, maximum xylem diameter increased with time, with the minimum diameter remaining pretty constant.[23] by the middle devonian, the tracheid diameter of some plant lineages (zosterophyllophytes) had plateaued.[23] wider tracheids allow water to be transported faster, but the overall transport rate depends also on the overall cross-sectional area of the xylem bundle itself.[23] the increase in vascular bundle thickness further seems to correlate with the width of plant axes, and plant height; it is also closely related to the appearance of leaves[23] and increased stomatal density, both of which would increase the demand for water.[20]

while wider tracheids with robust walls make it possible to achieve higher water transport pressures, this increases the problem of cavitation.[20] cavitation occurs when a bubble of air forms within a vessel, breaking the bonds between chains of water molecules and preventing them from pulling more water up with their cohesive tension. a tracheid, once cavitated, cannot have its embolism removed and return to service (except in a few a nced angiosperms[verification needed] which have developed a mechanism of doing so). therefore it is well worth plants' while to avoid cavitation occurring. for this reason, pits in tracheid walls have very small diameters, to prevent air entering and allowing bubbles to nucleate.[20] freeze-thaw cycles are a major cause of cavitation.[20] damage to a tracheid's wall almost inevitably leads to air leaking in and cavitation, hence the importance of many tracheids working in parallel.[20]

cavitation is hard to avoid, but once it has occurred plants have a range of mechanisms to contain the damage.[20] small pits link adjacent conduits to allow fluid to flow between them, but not air – although ironically these pits, which prevent the spread of embolisms, are also a major cause of them.[20] these pitted surfaces further reduce the flow of water through the xylem by as much as 30%.[20] conifers, by the jur ic, developed an ingenious improvement, using valve-like structures to isolate cavitated elements. these torus-margo structures have a blob floating in the middle of a donut; when one side depressurizes the blob is ed into the torus and blocks further flow.[20] other plants simply accept cavitation; for instance, oaks grow a ring of wide vessels at the start of each spring, none of which survive the winter frosts. maples use root pressure each spring to force sap upwards from the roots, squeezing out any air bubbles.

growing to height also employed another trait of tracheids – the support offered by their lignified walls. defunct tracheids were retained to form a strong, woody stem, produced in most instances by a secondary xylem. however, in early plants, tracheids were too mechanically vulnerable, and retained a central position, with a layer of tough sclerenchyma on the outer rim of the stems.[20] even when tracheids do take a structural role, they are supported by sclerenchymatic tissue.

tracheids end with walls, which impose a great deal of resistance on flow;[23] vessel members have perforated end walls, and are arranged in series to operate as if they were one continuous vessel.[23] the function of end walls, which were the default state in the devonian, was probably to avoid embolisms. an embolism is where an air bubble is created in a tracheid. this may happen as a result of freezing, or by gases dissolving out of solution. once an embolism is formed, it usually cannot be removed (but see later); the affected cell cannot pull water up, and is rendered useless.

end walls excluded, the tracheids of prevascular plants were able to operate under the same hydraulic conductivity as those of the first vascular plant, cooksonia.[23]

the size of tracheids is limited as they comprise a single cell; this limits their length, which in turn limits their maximum useful diameter to 80 μm.[20] conductivity grows with the fourth power of diameter, so increased diameter has huge rewards; vessel elements, consisting of a number of cells, joined at their ends, over e this limit and allowed larger tubes to form, reaching diameters of up to 500 μm, and lengths of up to 10 m.[20]

vessels first evolved during the dry, low co
2
periods of the late permian, in the horsetails, ferns and selaginellales independently, and later appeared in the mid cretaceous in angiosperms and gnetophytes.[20] vessels allow the same cross-sectional area of wood to transport around a hundred times more water than tracheids![20] this allowed plants to fill more of their stems with structural fibers, and also opened a new niche to vines, which could transport water without being as thick as the tree they grew on.[20] despite these a ntages, tracheid-based wood is a lot lighter, thus cheaper to make, as vessels need to be much more reinforced to avoid cavitation.[20]

development[edit]

patterns of xylem development: xylem in brown; arrows show direction of development from protoxylem to metaxylem

xylem development can be described by four terms: centrarch, exarch, endarch and mesarch. as it develops in young plants, its nature changes from protoxylem to metaxylem (i.e. from first xylem to after xylem). the patterns in which protoxylem and metaxylem are arranged is important in the study of plant morphology.

protoxylem and metaxylem[edit]

as a young vascular plant grows, one or more strands of primary xylem form in its stems and roots. the first xylem to develop is called 'protoxylem'. in appearance protoxylem is usually distinguished by narrower vessels formed of smaller cells. some of these cells have walls which contain thickenings in the form of rings or helices. functionally, protoxylem can extend: the cells are able to grow in size and develop while a stem or root is elongating. later, 'metaxylem' develops in the strands of xylem. metaxylem vessels and cells are usually larger; the cells have thickenings which are typically either in the form of ladderlike transverse bars (scalariform) or continuous sheets except for holes or pits (pitted). functionally, metaxylem completes its development after elongation ceases when the cells no longer need to grow in size.[27][28]

patterns of protoxylem and metaxylem[edit]

there are four main patterns to the arran ent of protoxylem and metaxylem in stems and roots.

  • centrarch refers to the case in which the primary xylem forms a single cylinder in the center of the stem and develops from the center outwards. the protoxylem is thus found in the central core and the metaxylem in a cylinder around it.[29] this pattern was common in early land plants, such as "rhyniophytes".

the other three terms are used where there is more than one strand of primary xylem.

  • exarch is used when there is more than one strand of primary xylem in a stem or root, and the xylem develops from the outside inwards towards the center, i.e. centripetally. the metaxylem is thus closest to the center of the stem or root and the protoxylem closest to the periphery. the roots of vascular plants are normally considered to have exarch development.[27]
  • endarch is used when there is more than one strand of primary xylem in a stem or root, and the xylem develops from the inside outwards towards the periphery, i.e. centrifugally. the protoxylem is thus closest to the center of the stem or root and the metaxylem closest to the periphery. the stems of seed plants typically have endarch development.[27]
mesarch is used when there is more than one strand of primary xylem in a stem or root, and the xylem develops from the middle of a strand in both directions. the metaxylem is thus on both the peripheral and central sides of the strand with the protoxylem between the metaxylem (possibly surrounded by it). the leaves and stems of many ferns have mesarch development.[2

­­­

­­

 

intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

short-term research program 2013

guide book

 

tehran, iran (february 02, 2013 to february 19, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

short-term research program 2013

 

 

under the supervision of ayatollah ‘allamah ‘abdullah jawadi-amoli

organized by al-mustafa international university-tehran branch

 

 

 

in cooperation with

the esra international foundation for revealed science and philosophy,

 the supreme embly of islamic wisdom, and the iranian institute of philosophy

 

                              

tehran, iran (february 02, 2013 to february 19, 2013)

 

 

 

 

content

                                                                                                                                    page

  • introduction

4

  • main subjects

4

  • a short view of the questions

5

  • members of the scientific board

6

  • al-mustafa international university

7

  • a schedule of lecture topics

8

  • the biog hical notes of seminar lecturers

9

  • strp supervisors

9

  • lecturer

11

  • outline of the lecture topics
  1. intellect in islamic ethics and the new challenges (contemporary ethical intellectual living paradigm )

dr. mahdi alizadeh

 

  1. “systematic thought theory in islam” an abstract of the comprehensive theoretical framework

ayatollah dr. mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

  1. “ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”

dr. n. mousavian

 

  1. a comparative study on the nature of rationality in islamic civilization

                         dr. seyed mahmud musawi

 

  1. islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

  1. the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

dr. mohammed rustom

 

  1. rationality in islamic mysticism ,the case of the mathnavi of mawlana rumi

dr. shahram pazouki

 

  1.  islamic rationality and islamic philosophy

dr. ahmad vaezi

 

18

 

18

 

 

 

18

 

 

19

 

 

 

20

 

 

20

 

 

 

21

 

 

21

 

 

 

22

  • attendees

22

  • time table

26

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introduction:

 

 

 

the second short-term course on “islam and contemporary issues”, with a focus on “intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization” has aimed to ess the relation between qur’anic notion of intellect and its pertinence to the concept of “aql ” that has appeared in the islamic traditional knowledge both in transmitted and intellectual forms.

 in this short-term course islam’s approach towards rationality, its principles, features, and outcomes will be tackled at the analytical section of the course through a comparative study between the qur’anic notion of ‘aql with a focus on islamic sciences, and modern rationalism.

on a deeper level, the course will address the following questions:

could islamic intellect answer the questions and challenges of the contemporary world and the contemporary man? if the answer is yes, how can this take place?

the course will also tackle fundamental issues such as challenges and predi ents ahead of the contemporary man.

 

main subjects:

  • ‘aql (intellect) in the qur’an and traditions
  • ‘aql in islamic philosophy and theology
  • ‘aql in islamic spirituality and ethics
  • ‘aql in political science and fiqh (jurisprudence)
  • ‘aql in modern philosophy
  • a comparative study of islamic and modern rationality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a short view of the questions forming the short-term research program

 

 

 

in this short pause we will point out the questions which have primed the inception of the second short term. the main purpose of these questions is to provide the proper ground for methodical dialogue and collective contemplation on one of the most fundamental concerns of quran and humanity, and to orientate the seminars on the basis of the aforementioned questions.

  1. what does qur’anic intellect mean? (this question both considers the nature of qur’anic intellect and the quran intellectual system)
  2. what are the standards of qur’anic rationality?
  3. what are the comprising causes and conditions of qur’anic rationality?
  4. what are the consequences of qur’anic rationality? (these consequences could be followed into all individual and social aspects of life. for instance the effect of qur’anic intellect could be discussed in different areas of sciences including ethics, jurisprudence, politics, and social institutions such as politics and economy.)
  5. what are the differences of qur’anic rationality from the intellect in the intellectual sciences, such as theology, philosophy, and mysticism?
  6. what is the proper methodology for the perception of qur’anic intellect?(the importance of this question and a systematic response to it, becomes critical when we consider that an improper method for understanding qur’anic lexicons and its immediate consequent thinking system, will result in the intrusion of non-qur’anic postulates in understanding quran, and this will lead us to the undesired destinations.)
  7. what are the main rationalism and non-rationalism currents in islamic civilization? and how much independent they are from the qur’anic teachings in formation of their intellectual system?
  8. what is the relation of fanaticism, fundamentalism, and religious superstition to qur’anic rationality? is the future of qur’anic rationality threatened by them?
  9. how to institutionalize the qur’anic rationality in the lives of muslim population, specifically in theology training centers?
  10. what is the relation of qur’anic rationality with practical and modern rationality? 
  11. what are the main obstacles to understand qur’anic intellect in the muslim society and implement qur’anic rationality in the muslim society?

without any doubt, what is provided in this embly, is just an introduction to the myriad of discussions which considering them would demand a great time and effort. the professional knows that answering the questions of the qur’anic intellect project is beyond a seminar and a two-week gathering. tehran higher education complex hopes to accomplish these important issues by the help of the scholars and the instructors.

the scientific board:

the scientific board began its discussions on choosing the main subject and other topics of the 2nd short-term course from september 2012. it also planned the short-term course schedule.

 

members of the scientific board

 

 

ali akbar attaran toosi, head of the miu-tehran

hasan askari, vice chancellor of education of miu-tehran

seyed amirhossein asghari, scientific secretary of the short-term course

mohammad taghi sadraei javaheri, vice chancellor of international affairs

seyed mohsen mousawi, vice chancellor of research

moslem madani, senior research member of the miu-tehran

seyed morteza mir majidi, chief executive of research center

 

 

 

 

 

al-mustafa international university (miu)

 

 

it is with the support of the invaluable experience of many centuries of education and scholarship imbued in traditional islamic seminaries—in their role as the standard bearers of religious guidance and the intellectual nucleus of islamic civilization—that al-mustafa international university (miu) was established nearly a quarter of a century ago. as such this educational institution has made it a priority to respond to the deep thirst for sacred knowledge in our times, and in so doing, it has aimed to take the steps necessary to increase the scope and depth of islamic erudition in the modern world.

the goals of this scholastic institution can be categorized as follows:

  • training and nurturing of devoted and committed religious experts, researchers,  
    lecturers and disseminators of islamic knowledge and virtues;
  • deep exposition of qur’anic themes and ideas as would lead to a greater scope for, and relevancy of, islamic doctrines;
  • facilitating access to authentic islamic teachings.

some of the main policies of miu are as follows:

  • to emphasize intellectual vigor—unfolding ideas and opening new vistas of knowledge.
  • to translate traditional islamic sources into other languages.
  • to adopt a research-oriented educational approach.
  • to respect human dignity in all interactions.
  • to respect all islamic schools of thought.

to the present day, nearly 34,000 male and female students from 108 different countries have enrolled at this center of learning and approximately 16,000 have graduated from its various levels. they have returned to their respective countries and are busy in centers of learning, research and culture. now, nearly 18,000 male and female students are busy in their studies. of these 10,000 are studying in iran while 8,000 are receiving their education at affiliated institutions in other countries.

miu-tehran

al-mustafa international university, tehran branch, is an educational institution which, while keeping to the general mission of al-mustafa international university and in congruence with its identity as a traditional seminary, takes a spiritual and civilizational approach to the islamic sciences. as such, its mandate is to make the fullest use of the wisdom traditions of man and the profound potentials of the human intellect in the education of religious scholars from all islamic schools of thought and from all parts of the world. it also espouses to shed light on the teachings of islam so as to meet the needs of the present-day world, especially in regards to religious proximity.

 

 

the intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

no

lecturer

subject

date

1

h.dr. seyed mahmud musawi

a comparative study of the nature of intellect in islamic civilization

2013-02-02

2

dr. hamid parsania

on the pertinence of intellectuality in islamic civilization in light of the quranic intellect

2013-02-03

3

dr. shahram pazouki

the mystic intellect (with an emphasis on rumi)

04-02-2013

 

4

dr. gholamreza aavani

the meaning of qur’anic intellect and its stance on philosophical reason   

05-02-2013

5

dr. karim crow

the creation of intelligence: from wisdom to intellect

05-02-2013

6

h.dr. alizadeh

the rationality of islamic morality and modern challenges (what is the islamic moral/intellectual roadmap for life?)

06-02-2013

7

dr. ahmad pakatchi

islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

07-02-2013

08-02-2013

8

dr. seyed nasrrollah mousavian

 

1-models of rationality 2-contemporary debates about rationality

09-02-2013

9

other programs

 

10-02-2013

11

dr. christian bonaud

1. philosophy and mysticism: a debate (on the correspondence between qunawi and tusi)

2. the function of revelation, intellect and image (khayal) in relation to prophecy and wisdom from al-farabi to mulla sadra

12-02-2013

13-02-2013

12

ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani

systematic thought theory in islam

2013-02-14

 

13

grand ayatollah javadi amoli

 

intellect in the holy qur’an

2013-02-14

 

14

h.dr. ahmad vaezi

islamic intellectuality and political philosophy (on justice)

2013-02-15

15

dr. mohammed rustom

the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

2013-02-16

2013-02-17

16

h.dr. parsania

conclusions

18-02-2013

17

excursion

excursion

2013-02-19

 

 

 

 

 

the biog hical notes of seminar lecturers

 

strp is planned under the supervision of

grand ayatollah abdollah javadi amoli

  • grand ayatollah abdollah javadi amoli was born in amol in 1933. after finishing the elementary school, he entered amol’s hawzah in 1946 and studied there till 1950. then he went to tehran’s theological school. after entering marvi school, he studied “rasa’el va makaseb” (treatises & earnings), then learned “kefayat-ul ‘usul” (the qualities of principles), and ‘ulume aqli va naqli (rational and transmitted sciences). after 5 years, he went to qom’s theological school and has been there ever since. he established “esra” publication and research institute in 1993. he was a member of the elite embly of the constitution. he has been a teacher of the community of qom’s theological school. now he is the head of esra international research institute for the revealed sciences.

his teachers: ayatollah azizollah tabarsi, mirza mahdi mohi-u-din elahi ghomshe’ie, ayatollah burudjerdi, imam khomeini and allameh seyyed mohammad hossein tabataba’ie et al. he has many works such as: t nim, exposition of the qu’ran, thematic commentary on the quran, rahighe makhtom (commentary on mulla sadra’s transcendental philosophy, asrar-u-salaat(the mysteries of parayers, sahbaye hajj(the wine of hajj) , vilayat-e faqih, etc. 

*          *          *

president of al_mustafa international university

ayatollah dr. alireza a’rafi

ayatollah a’rafi was born in 1958 in meybod, a city in yazd province, into a virtuous clerical family. after finishing his general education, he moved to qom in 1970 and completed his seminary education. he soon finished the elementary level and began the a nced level in 1977.

he also took, and excelled in, philosophy and ethics courses. a’rafi learned arabic and english languages and excelled in mathematics and western philosophy via studying books which were rare back then. he attended the teaching and learning courses arranged by research institute of the seminary and university. he studied almizan commentary on the qur’an and the exposition of nahdj-ul-balaghe written by ibn abi al-hadid.

 

a’rafi enjoyed the lectures of some well-known teachers such as ayatollah meshkini and ayatollah ḥ anzade amoli, learning books like “falsafatona va eqtesadona”(our philosophy & our economy) written by shahid sadr. he also attended the cl es of ayatollah sayed kaẓem ḥa’eri. for studying a nced islamic law and principles of jurisprudence, he enjoyed the lectures of ayatollah ḥadj sheikh morteza ḥa’eri, ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma faḍhel lankarani, ayatollah vahid khorasani, ayatollah jawad tabrizi, ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma makarem shirazi, and ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma shobeiri zandjani. he also attended the lectures of ayatollah jawadi amoli, ayatollah shahid motahari and ayatollah misbah yazdi for courses like: asfar e arba’eh, borhan e shafa, fusus-ul-ḥikam, tamḥid-ul-qawa’ed, and philosophy.

academic and cultural activities:

ayatollah a’rafi has had various academic and cultural activities. he has often taught many of the elementary seminary courses; he has lectured asfar-e-arba’eh, and a nced islamic law and nurturing (fiqh al-tarbiyah) for many years. for his teachings, he initiated a method comparing the discussions of old books with those of modern sciences. he has published a number of books in training sciences, such as:

 

research plans and works:

 

  1. philosophy of teaching and learning (authorship).

 

  1. objectives of teaching and learning according to islam (research)

 

  1. an introduction to man’s talent (research)

 

  1. the viewpoints of muslim scientists regarding teaching and learning. second and fourth volumes (research)

 

  1. the viewpoints of muslim scientists regarding training. first and third volumes (authorship)

 

  1. the prophet’s (p.b.u.h) and imams’ (p.b.u.t) teaching method. three volumes (research)

 

  1. the system of islamic training. three volumes (research)

 

  1. role of teacher training (advisor and supervisor)

 

  1. relation between training studies and islam. (advisor and supervisor)

 

  1. jurisprudential and training lessons and lessons of judgment and witnessing

 

  1. collection of articles and lectures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lecturers

 

 

professor dr. gholamreza aavani

 

  • gholamreza aavani was born in semnan in 1943. he graduated from the university of tehran. he is a renowned professor of philosophy and the director of iranian philosophical ociation and the previous head of iranian institute of philosophy. his awards and honors include: distinguished professor of shahid beheshti university, 1993, select professor at the first conference on lasting personalities in science and culture, 2001, honorary professor at the newly established international university of china, 2004,  distinguished professor and researcher of the hua-jung university of china, 2004 (for two years). aavani has many publications in first-rate international and national journals. he is fluent in english, french, arabic and persian. his interests vary from western, islamic and comparative philosophy to philosophy of art and mysticism.

 

hujjat-ul-islam  dr.  mahdi alizadeh

 

  • hujjat al-islam  dr.  mahdi alizadeh was born in tehran in 1972. he studied fiqh (islamic jurisprudence) and usul (principles of islamic jurisprudence) at qom seminary (howza). his leading teachers were ayatollah jawadi amoli and ayatollah mirza jawad tabrizi. then, he holds a ph.d. in islamic ethics. dr. alizadeh is the istant professor and director of the center for ethics and education at academy of islamic sciences and culture (qom, iran), and also the director of the ethics department at al-mustafa open university.

he has written five books on ethics (including three specialized books and two text books), two books on mahdism and the culture of mahdism, and one book on islamic mysticism and mystical interpretation of the qur’an. amongst the most important  of his 25 papers are applied ethics: studies and challenges in the practical ethics (2007) (national award winning book), islamic ethics: foundations and concepts (2010), bibliog hy of islamic ethics: an analytical account (2006),the theological-mystical interpretation of the verse of noor (award winning book),looking forward to phoenix (on mahdism) (2000, award winning book), and the signs of the appearance of promised mahdi(2001) are the most important ones.he also has done three academic researches on applied ethics, social ethics, the history of ethics and islamic ethics. a critique of the moral principles of the contemporary biotechnology (2011), and a psychological analysis of moral weakness (2012).

he has taught courses on logics, islamic ethics, the comparative ethics of religions, theology, the principles of fiqh, and arabic literature to students at the qom seminary (1997-2012). he has also taught courses on the philosophy of ethics, islamic ethics, and applied ethics, to university students since 2006.

dr. alizadeh has delivered many academic lectures on ethics and different islamic subjects. amongst them includes lectures on mysticism in persian literature,(2011, chicago university), the roles of religions in global ethics (2011, hartford seminary), and islamization of western humanities, (2011, iiit, virginia). he has also had some important academic panel discussions on ethics, like re-reading the foundations of religious ethics (2011, chicago university), and biomedical ethics (2011, georgetown university). 

 

dr. yahya christian bonaud

 

  • yahya christian bonaud was born in 1957 into a christian catholic family in fribourg germany. due to his father’s job, he lived in germany and algeria for the first 10 years of his life and then moved to strasburg france. he converted to islam under the influence of rené guénon, the french muslim philosopher. he then started his studies in arabic language and literature and islamic sciences. while pursuing his studies, he e to know the works of henry corbin. under the teachings of ahmad hampate, he chose shia sect of islam and changed his name to yahya alavi. bonaud received the professeur agrégé position in 1987. he received his phd form suborn university in 1995 with dissertation title: theology in philosophical and mystical works of imam khomeini. his dissertation was chosen as the select research of the year in 1999.in order to carry out his research, bonaud lived in iran for fifteen years. participating in cl es held by jalal-e-din ashtiani in mashhad, he learned about islamic philosophy and mysticism. he is currently residing in france and working on a project named: “hekmate mota’alie (transcendental philosophy) of mullah sadra, a response to sadr-u-din qunawi’s expectations”. he is also translating the holy qur’an and its exposition into french.

selected publications:

  1. islamic sufism and mysticism
  2. imam khomeini, the unknown gnostic of 20th century
  3. islamic revolution doctrine
  4. religion and thought in the snare of self-interest
  5. fighting ego or the great jihad, a work of imam khomeini  

 

ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

  • ­­­­ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani was born in 1961 in tehran. he graduated from khwarazmi high school in mathematics and physics with honors.  then he was admitted at sharif university of technology where he studied electrical engineering. he started his official seminary studies in qom in 1980. he studied arabic literature and logic in cl es of ayatollah khoshwaqt in tehran. when returned to qom, he finished h (intermediate) studies in five years, and then started his a nced studies by enjoying the lectures of some great scholars such as ayatollah sheikh jawad tabrizi, ayatollah vahid khorasani, ayatollah bahjat foomani, ayatollah makarem shirazi, ayatollah mirza hashem amoli and ayatollah sheikh ja`far sobhani.  moreover, he mostly enjoyed the cl es of ayatollah sayyed kazem ha’eri. he studied philosophy by taking part in cl es of some eminent figures such as ayatollah ansari shirazi, ayatollah hasanzadeh amoli, and ayatollah mesbah yazdi and for many years he attended the lectures of ayatollah jawadi amoli. he studied mysticism, ethics, fiqh, exposition of the holy qur’an and holy sayings in the cl es of ayatollah baha’oddini.

ayatollah hadavi is fluent in english and arabic and knows french and german well. now, he supervises the islamquest.net website which provides answers to islamic questions in 16 languages.

his positions and activities are as follows:

teaching post-graduate fiqh (islamic law) and usool (islamic jurisprudence) in the hawza since 1990

full professor of islamic law and philosophy

founder of porch of wisdom cultural institute in qom

research on modern sciences such as economics, modern theology, philosophy of science, and philosophy of art

chairman of the “jurisprudence and law group” of the “council for revising humanities text books” in the ministry of science, research and technology

member of the academic council of philosophy of science in sharif university of technology

member of the supreme council of the ahl al-bait world embly (abwa)

excellent member of the world council of religious leaders (wcrl)

member of board of trustees of institute for humanities and cultural studies

member of fiqh (shari`ah) committee of the stock exchange market in the islamic republic of iran

ayatollah hadavi's books include: the chest of wisdom (2 volumes), tahrir al-maqal fi kolliyat-e-elm-e-rejal (arabic), wilayat al-faqih (principles, proofs and jurisdiction), judging and the judge, the theological bases of ijtihad (recognized as book of the year in 1999 by the hawza of qom), islam's economic doctrine and system, governance and religion: essays on the islamic political thought, beliefs and questions, the history of usool (islamic jurisprudence), to the heavens with the youth, the green tryst, the green steps of anticipation, iran: the homeland of divine wisdom, the overall structure of the islamic economic system according to the quran.

 

 

 

 

hujjat al-islam  dr.seyed mahmud musawi

 

  • seyed mahmud musawi started his seminary studies in 1977 at meybod theological school. with the outbreak of iran's revolution he moved to qom. at feyzieh he enjoyed teachers such as ayatollah eshtehardi, ayatollah mohaqeq damad, ayatollah mousavi tehrani, ayatollah payani, and some of other great seminarians of hawze. he finished h and then enrolled in usul courses held by ayatollah vahid khorasani. beside jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, he learned philosophy and exegesis form ayatollah jawadi amoli and misbah yazdi. he is also familiar with astronomy. he received his m.a. from dar-u-shafa teacher training center in 1993. his m.a. thesis title is “translation of the philosophical works of etienne gilson”. he was admitted in university of qom in 1998 and received his phd in theology. his dissertation was a comparative study between ayatollah motahari’s works and g. l. macky’s works on the problem of evil. he has been a faculty member of bagher al ‘olum university, department of philosophy and theology, since 1999.

publications:

  1. introduction to the philosophy of religion (book)
  2. introduction to christian philosophy
  3. encyclopedia ‏of islamic mysticism terms
  4. encyclopedia of islamic philosophy and theology terms
  5. the meaning of life
  6. introduction to the philosophy of religion (paper)

 

 

dr. seyed n. mousavian

 

  •  seyed n. mousavian (phd university of alberta, canada, 2009) is istant professor at the iranian institute of philosophy and faculty research fellow at the institute for research in fundamental sciences. his research interests include philosophy of language and metaphysics as well as islamic philosophy and philosophy of religion. mousavian’s recent publications include “neo-meinongian, neo-russellians” (pacific philosophical quarterly, 2010) and “gappy propositions?” (canadian journal of philosophy, 2011). his current projects include papers on meinongianism and the problem of empty names, the relationship between understanding religion and the persistence of meaning, origination and individuation of soul from an avicennian point of view, and the concept of existence; as well as a book entitled an introduction to western philosophy.

 

 

*          *          *

 

dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

 

  •  ahmad pakatchi, was born in tehran, 1963. he holds a ph.d. in religious studies and a ph.d. in philology. he is an interdisciplinary scholar working at the same time with several departments. the central core of his interests is the quranic studies and historical linguistics, cultural semiotics, especially concerning the qur'an. he has been the head of the department of qur’an & hadith studies, the center for great islamic encyclopedia, since 1989 and the head of the department of islamic law, the center for great islamic encyclopedia, since 1991. he is a faculty member at imam sadeq university, since 1999. he is also the head of the department of qur’an & hadith studies, imam sadeq university, faculty of theology, since 2000 and head of iranian circle of semiotics, since 2006. he is a member of the department of russian studies, faculty of world studies, university of tehran, since 2005 and a member of editorial board, international journal for semiotics of law, since 2006. he is the author of numerous works in persian, arabic, english and russian, in the fields such as islamic culture, islamic traditional sciences, and some sectarian movements like salafiyya etc.

 

 

hujjat al-islam dr. hamid parsania

 

  • hamid parsania was born in 1958.  after receiving his ba in sociology from the university of tehran, he graduated from the seminary of qum, specializing in islamic philosophy and mysticism.  he has compiled, edited, and notified dissertations on the verbal discourses of the major authorities in the field in thirty volumes.  he is the author of tens of books and articles and has taught numerous courses in various universities and the seminary.  his seminal work on the spiritual anthropology of islam,existence and the fall, has been translated into english and serbian. he was the chancellor of the baqir-ul-‘ulūm university in qum for five years and is currently a member of the supreme council for cultural revolution in iran.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

professor dr. sharam pazouki

 

 

  • shahram pazouki was born in tehran in 1956. he graduated from the university of tehran, department of philosophy. he is a professor of philosophy and religious studies and head of the department of religious studies. he is also editor in chief of the quarterly rumi studies. fields of his teaching and research includes:
  • comparative philosophy: western and islamic 
  • comparative mysticism: islamic and christian,
  • sufi studies: teachings, methods, art, history, modern era, philosophy of art and beauty

his publications includes articles and books in persian, english and arabic mainly on mawlana rumi, suhravardi, shah ni'matullahi wali and his sufi path, mirfendereski, philosophy of art and beauty in islam, dialogue among religions and comparative topics in islamic and modern philosophy. his last published book is: islam, iran, erfan, a collection of essays on suhravardi 

 

       

dr. mohammed rustom

 

 

  • mohammed rustom was born and raised in toronto, canada. he received a ba (hons.) from the university of toronto in islamic studies and philosophy in 2004, and then received a phd at the same institution in the field of islamic thought in 2009. currently, dr. rustom is istant professor of islamic studies at carleton university (ottawa, canada), and is also the director of the carleton centre for the study of islam. he is the main editor of an anthology of professor william chittick's writings entitled, in search of the lost heart: explorations in islamic thought (suny, 2012), and is the istant editor of the harpercollins study quran (harperone, forthcoming), headed by professor seyyed hossein nasr. dr. rustom's own books include the triumph of mercy: philosophy and scripture in mulla sadra (suny, 2012), an anthology of quranic commentaries: human nature (oxford university press, forthcoming), and a forthcoming study of the teachings of 'ayn al-qudat hamadani.

 

 

 

 

 

 

hujjat-ul-islam dr. ahmad va’ezi

 

  • dr. ahmad va’ezi entered qom seminary in 1982 and studied h in 1986. he then took courses in islamic jurisprudence, enjoying the cl es of great scholars such as ayatollah vahid khorasani, shiekh jawad tabrizi, seyed kazem haeri, and sadeq larijani. mastering philosophy under ayatollah javadi amoli, misbah yazdi and h. fayazi, he then started his professional studies in western philosophy and modern transmitted sciences.  he has been a university lecturer since 1987 and has taught in many iranian and international universities. in 2001 he moved to london to teach at bridge university, london islamic college and london seminary. his major research interests are modern transmitted sciences and western philosophy and, since 2006, he has focused on hermeneutics and political thought.

publications:

 

1.         alternation of theological understanding

2.         theological society, civilized society

3.         man from islam perspective

4.         bedaye al hekam (the beginning of wisdoms)

5.         theocracy

6.         islamic rule

7.         introduction to hermeneutics

8.         shia political thought

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a schedule of lectur topics

outline of the lectures topic

intellectuality in islamic ethics and the new challenges (contemporary ethical-intellectual living paradigm )

by: dr. mahdi alizadeh

 

 

in the emergence of the third millennium, the appearance of modern technologies in the fields of information, communication, biological sciences, genetics, etc., and the formation of movements such as religious fundamentalism, secular spiritualties and new religious movements (nrms) have created a lot of problems for the mankind in our era to understand ethical criteria and recognize ethical obligations. this is true while the ethical-spiritual living and providing standards and scales for ethical-spiritual living, is the central message of religions.

the quran’s extensive call and emphasis on self-construction of individual and formation of ethical society and sovereignty is a proof to the importance of ethics among the objectives of islam.

 in first pivot of these coming lectures, we will work on a short history of islamic ethics and the four main approaches to it, i. e., philosophical approach, transmitted approach, mystical approach and composed approach, as an introduction. then we will point out the status of intellect and the quran among the knowledge resources of islamic ethical system.

 in the second pivot, we will deal with the great challenge of moral philosophy in the present time, and we will study the discourse of realism-unrealism and thereby answer to the problem of absolutism-relativism of ethical propositions, on the basis of islamic ethics and the synergy between intellect and the quran. in the third pivot, we will give the intellectual answers of islam ethical system to an important part of the new-born challenges of the modern life, i.e. genetic ethical crises and environmental crises. 

    

  “systematic thought theory in islam”

 an abstract of the comprehensive theoretical framework

by: ayatollah dr. mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

islam provides guidance through its teachings regarding different domains and fields of human life. however in light of the complicated nature of human beings and the relations that exist between them and their surroundings, an equally comprehensive and multifaceted framework has to be developed to put this guidance in perspective and to infer the teachings of islam based on a systematic approach. the “systematic thought theory in islam” which was formulated and introduced by the author more than twenty years ago after a thorough study of those teachings combined with a philosophical and systematic insight developed through an in depth scrutiny of the academic tradition p ed down to the present day scholars by their predecessors. over the years, this theory has been refined and consolidated by the author.

this theory states that: islam introduces a philosophy, a doctrine, a system and a legal system in each aspect of human’s life. all of the elements in this theoretical model are universal (not bound by time and space) and from them we can derive situational and conditional elements, i.e. mechanism and situational legal system to be implemented in specific times and places.

hence, based on this theoretical model, it can be claimed that, for example, in the field of economy the following components exist:

1.         philosophy: a set of existential and cosmological realities and truths related to and having a bearing upon a specific field of human behavior such as economy.

2.         doctrine: the values and norms governing human behavior in that specific field which itself consists of two parts:

a.         principles & bases, i.e. the accepted values and guidelines for that particular field;

b.         aims and goals, i.e. the value-laden milestones which should be endeavored for.

3.         system: the set of relevant institutions and/or consolidated human behaviors for progressing towards the doctrinal goals and achieving them based on the principles enshrined in the doctrine.

4.         universal legal system: the legal consequence of the doctrine and system.

5.         mechanism: the manifestation of the system in specific circumstances.

6.         situational legal system is the manifestation of the universal legal system in those specific circumstances.

hence, for example, in the field of economy the following components exist:

1.         philosophy of islamic economy

2.         doctrine of islamic economy

3.         system of islamic economy

4.         universal legal system of islamic economy

and for specific circumstances:

1.         mechanism of islamic economy

2.         situational legal system of islamic economy

*          *          *

 

“ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”

by: dr. n. mousavian

 

i will deliver two speeches: “ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”. in the first speech, i will try to introduce different perspectives on rationality: i will be talking about maximizing vs. isfying, criticisms of each and recent formulations of these archetypes of economic rationality. also, i will attempt to compare probability views on rationality with explanatory coherence views.  we may touch on some issues regarding individual rationally versus group rationality, if time permits. in the second speech, i will try to introduce and review adam morton’s forthcoming book entitled “bounded thinking” (by oxford university press). the book contains interesting ideas like the relationship between content externalism and virtue epistemology, on the one hand, and contemporary views on rationality, on the other hand. as part of my review, i will focus on the ways in which rationality may be understood. i will end by a short discussion of morton’s criticisms of weirich’s (2004) “realistic decision theory.”

 

 

a comparative study on the nature of rationality in islamic civilization

by: dr. seyed mahmud musawi

 

in the history of islamic thought we find different approaches to rationality which depending on the nature of the reason and rationality in question range from affirmative and sympathetic to negative and hostile. therefore a review of the nature and modes of rationality as well as its criteria seems to be essential in any comparative study on this subject. in this way we must also have in mind and highlight the crucial roles, reason can play in the whole system of religious beliefs. it seems that these different, divergent and sometimes conflicting versions of rationality, have been developed by muslim scholars in light of the way they experience and understand the reality. so we can speak of various encounters and experiences of reality which give rise to different modes of rationality.  the deeper we encounter reality, the deeper mode of rationality we can develop.  hence there are different modes and levels. faith-based, instrumental, practical, theoretical, philosophical and mystical and some other sorts of rationality grew out of our various concerns and experience.  in order to have a fair judgment on the status of reason and rationality it is necessary to examine the origin and nature of each type and evaluate it on the basis of its functions and adequacy in meeting the challenges we face in the main domain of thoughts.

 

 

islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism

 (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

by:dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

i would like to emphasize on the fact that fundamentalism is a result of facing of a kind of religious radicalism with modernity. what we call here a kind of religious radicalism is an orientation to religion which wants to refine it from all historical adaptations and supplementations received and to achieve to a pure version of religion. in the course of this refinement, the fundamentalists detach the religion from its historical context, while there is no reliable way to reconstruct the context of revelation. then the religious texts including the holy qur’an and the sunna remain decontextualized, while the fundamentalists seek to have their solutions for modern issues through achronical or pseudo-chronial readings of resources.

secondly, i would like to show that the historical adaptations and supplementations play an important role for bridging the theoretical gap between theory and practice. that’s why in the course of islamic centuries, many sects and schools found their way of practice to solve social and political issues, while there are no specific methods expected to help for finding solutions. for example, for schools denying the influence of intellectual evaluation of human acts (al-husn wa-l-qubh al-‘aqliyyân) the results in jurisprudence and ethics are not much different than those of the schools supporting intellectual evaluation. but i want to emphasize the fact that the schools denying the need for intellectual evaluating of the theory and adapting their attitude with it in practice, lack the ability for immediate reaction to the current cases and confronting issues in the society. in such schools, adaptation with intellectual evaluations totally depends on p ing time and historical process and every raised matter of debate needs a long time to be digested.

thirdly, yet again by concentrating on fundamentalism, i try to make clear that the supporters of fundamentalism while denying the historical readings of religion and rejecting the traditional adaptations to intellectual perception, lose the historical support of intellect in their seek  for religious rules of social and political practice. adhering to the position of rejecting an independent decree for intellect, they have no way to a direct use of intellect in the course of perception of religion. then the result is a not only a rupture with the religious tradition, but also a distance from the world lived in. the result is breaking from all aspects of reality and falling in a fantasy perception of religion, far from what actually exists and far from what religion expects to exist.

 

the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

by: dr. mohammed rustom

 

 

this session will seek to explain the manner in which the findings of the islamic intellectual heritage (particularly the traditions of philosophy and religion) can contribute to contemporary discussions in philosophy and religion. the approach here will be two-fold, that is, both theoretical and practical. in laying out the theoretical underpinnings of our proposed topic, we will attempt to take stock of what is implied by the term “worldview,” and how challenging the traditional islamic worldview can be to most popular, wide-spread worldviews currently in vogue. the practical component of this session will seek to offer a close reading of a famous but surprisingly yet less known letter written by the famous sufi ibn ‘arabi (d. 638/1240) to the foremost theologian and philosopher of his day, fakhr al-din al-razi (d. 606/1210). by investigating the contents of this letter, two tendencies—the “spiritual” and the “rational”—will be brought into comparative perspective, thereby pointing up the distinction between


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